Soil organic carbon characteristics affected by peanut shell biochar in saline-sodic paddy field
Biochar exhibits a profound impact on soil organic carbon (SOC) turnover and dynamics, but the underlying mechanism under field conditions is still unclear. A three-year field experiment was performed to evaluate the impact of peanut shell biochar applied at rates of 0, 33.75, 67.5, and 101.25 t/ha (referred to as B0, B1, B2, and B3, respectively) on SOC content and chemical composition in a saline-sodic paddy field using stable carbon isotope composition and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance technology. With increasing rates of biochar, SOC and aromatic carbon contents and alkyl carbon/oxygen-alkyl carbon and hydrophobic carbon/hydrophilic carbon ratios increased, while alkyl carbon and oxygen-alkyl carbon contents and aliphatic carbon/aromatic carbon ratio decreased. The new carbon from biochar and rice residues accounted for 26.5% of SOC under B0 and increased to above 80.0% under B2 and B3. The decay rate of old carbon was faster in biochar-amended than in unamended soil. SOC content was positively correlated with alkyl carbon/oxygen-alkyl carbon and hydrophobic carbon/hydrophilic carbon ratios but negatively correlated with aliphatic carbon/aromatic carbon ratio. The results suggest that biochar can increase SOC content by increasing its humification, aromaticity, and hydrophobicity. However, negative priming is not the main mechanism for SOC accumulation during the short-term period.
Balesdent J., Mariotti A. (1996): Measurement of soil organic matter turnover using 13C natural abundance. In: Boutton T.W., Yamasaki S.I. (eds.): Mass Spectrometry of Soils. New York, Marcel Dekker. ISBN-13: 978-0824796990
Bhaduri D., Saha A., Desai D., Meena H.N. (2016): Restoration of carbon and microbial activity in salt-induced soil by application of peanut shell biochar during short-term incubation study. Chemosphere, 148: 86–98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.12.130
Bi Y.C., Cai S.Y., Wang Y., Zhao X., Wang S.Q., Xing G., Zhu Z.L. (2020): Structural and microbial evidence for different soil carbon sequestration after four-year successive biochar application in two different paddy soils. Chemosphere, 254: 126881. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.126881
Ding F., Van Zwieten L., Zhang W.D., Weng Z., Shi S.W., Wang J.K., Meng J. (2018): A meta-analysis and critical evaluation of influencing factors on soil carbon priming following biochar amendment. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 18: 1507–1517. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-017-1899-6
Dominchin M.F., Verdenelli R.A., Berger M.G., Aoki A., Meriles J.M. (2021): Impact of N-fertilization and peanut shell biochar on soil microbial community structure and enzyme activities in a Typic Haplustoll under different management practices. European Journal of Soil Biology, 104: 103298. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejsobi.2021.103298
Dou X., Li F., Cheng X., Zhu P. (2018): Soil organic carbon and nitrogen dynamics induced by continuous maize cropping compared to maize-soybean rotation. European Journal of Soil Science, 69: 535–544. https://doi.org/10.1111/ejss.12544
Gong H.Y., Li Y.F., Li S.J. (2021): Effects of the interaction between biochar and nutrients on soil organic carbon sequestration in soda saline-alkali grassland: a review. Global Ecology and Conservation, 26: e01449. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gecco.2020.e01449
Han L.F., Sun K., Yang Y., Xia X.H., Li F.B., Yang Z.F., Xing B.S. (2020): Biochar’s stability and effect on the content, composition and turnover of soil organic carbon. Geoderma, 364: 114184. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2020.114184
Kasozi G.N., Zimmerman A.R., Nkedi-Kizza P., Gao B. (2010): Catechol and humic acid sorption onto a range of laboratory-produced black carbons (biochars). Environmental Science and Technology, 44: 6189–6195. https://doi.org/10.1021/es1014423
Li N., Shao T., Zhou Y., Hui H., Gao X., Sun Q., Long X., Yue Y., Rengel Z. (2021): Effects of planting Melia azedarach L. on soil proporties and microbial community in saline-alkali soil. Land Degradation and Development, 32: 2951–2961. https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.3936
Liu B.J., Cai Z.H., Zhang Y.C., Liu G.C., Luo X.X., Zheng H. (2019): Comparison of efficacies of peanut shell biochar and biochar-based compost on two leafy vegetable productivity in an infertile land. Chemosphere, 224: 151–161. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.02.100
Liu Y.X., Chen Y., Wang Y.Y., Lu H.H., He L.L., Yang S.M. (2018): Negative priming effect of three kinds of biochar on the mineralization of native soil organic carbon. Land Degradation and Development, 29: 3985–3994.
Maestrini B., Nannipieri P., Abiven S. (2015): A meta-analysis on pyrogenic organic matter induced priming effect. GCB – Bioenergy, 7: 577–590. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcbb.12194
Ramesh T., Bolan N.S., Kirkham M.B., Wijesekara H., Kanchikerimath M., Rao C.S., Sandeep S., Rinklebe J., Ok Y.S., Choudhury B.U., Wang H.L., Tang C.X., Wang X.J., Song Z.L., Freeman II O.W. (2019): Chapter one – soil organic carbon dynamics: impact of land use changes and management practices: a review. Advances in Agronomy, 156: 1–107.
Wang P.P., Liu X.G., Yu B.C., Wu X.H., Xu J., Dong F.S., Zheng Y.Q. (2020): Characterization of peanut-shell biochar and the mechanisms underlying its sorption for atrazine and nicosulfuron in aqueous solution. Science of The Total Environment, 702: 134767. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134767
Yao T.X., Zhang W.T., Gulaqa A., Cui Y.F., Zhou Y.M., Weng W., Wang X., Liu Q., Jin F. (2021): Effects of peanut shell biochar on soil nutrients, soil enzyme activity, and rice yield in heavily saline-sodic paddy field. Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 21: 655–664. https://doi.org/10.1007/s42729-020-00390-z
Zhang J.J., Cao Z.Y., Feng G.Z., Li M.Y., Li C.L., Gao Q., Wang L.C. (2017): Effects of integrated soil-crop system management on soil organic carbon characteristics in a Primosol in Northeast China. Pedosphere, 27: 957–967. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1002-0160(17)60474-0
Zhang J., Wei Y., Liu J., Yuan J., Liang Y., Ren J., Cai H. (2019): Effects of maize straw and its biochar application on organic and humic carbon in water-stable aggregates of a Mollisol in Northeast China: a five-year field experiment. Soil and Tillage Research, 190: 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2019.02.014
Zhang Y.F., Wang J.M., Feng Y. (2021): The effects of biochar addition on soil physicochemical properties: a review. Catena, 202: 105284. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2021.105284
Zheng T.H., Zhang J., Tang C.J., Liao K.T., Guo L.P. (2021): Positive and negative priming effects in an Ultisol in relation to aggregate size class and biochar level. Soil and Tillage Research, 208: 104874. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2020.104874