Are intensification and winter wheat yield increase efficient?

https://doi.org/10.17221/482/2017-PSECitation:Křen J., Houšť M., Tvarůžek L., Jergl Z. (2017): Are intensification and winter wheat yield increase efficient? Plant Soil Environ., 63: 428-434.
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The results of small-plot field trials of international comparisons of a series of crop management practices for winter wheat grown during 2014–2016 on fertile soils of Central Moravia were assessed. The objective of the experiments was to obtain the highest gross margin (GM), which is the difference between revenues and direct costs. The analyses showed that an optimal level of inputs and costs for obtaining the highest GM could exist. In the assessed series of crop management practices, the optimum input costs corresponded to 11 000–12 000 CZK/ha and 6–9 input measures. At high levels of grains (above 10 t/ha), higher values of GM were obtained by increased efficiency of inputs, but not by increasing their amount to maximize the yields. This indicates the multifunctional and synergic effects of production factors, which can be used at the so-called ecological intensification. Optimizations of inputs can be obtained rather by crop protection than by crop nutrition, which means rather in protection of high yields than in their maximization. Under field conditions, soil and plant processes affected by weather cannot be controlled. Therefore, optimisation of production factors is based both on scientific findings and practical agronomic experience. That is why a universal crop management practice with increased economic and ecological effects cannot be practically proposed.
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