Mycorrhizal fungi enhance flooding tolerance of peach through inducing proline accumulation and improving root architecture

Zheng F.-L., Liang S.-M., Chu X.-N., Yang Y.-L., Wu Q.-S. (2020): Mycorrhizal fungi enhance flooding tolerance of peach through inducing proline accumulation and improving root architecture. Plant Soil Environ., 66: 624–631.


download PDF

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) Glomus mosseae on plant growth, root architecture, and proline metabolism in roots of peach (Prunes persica L.) under non-flooding and flooding conditions. The 12-day flooding dramatically inhibited root colonisation of G. mosseae, but induced a large number of extraradical mycelia. Although the flooding treatment also relatively inhibited growth and root architecture of peach, the mycorrhizal fungal inoculation dramatically increased shoot and root biomass, plant height, stem diameter, number of 1st- and 2nd-order lateral roots, root total length (mainly 0–1 cm and > 3 cm long), root surface area, and root volume under flooding. The study also revealed distinctly higher proline accumulation in the roots of mycorrhizal plants than non-mycorrhizal plants under both non-flooding and flooding conditions, accompanied by higher Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthase (P5CS) activity and lower δ-ornithine transaminase and proline dehydrogenase activities. In addition, the PpP5CS1 gene expression was up-regulated by flooding and mycorrhization. This study concluded that mycorrhizal fungi enhanced flooding tolerance of peach through inducing proline accumulation and improving root architecture.


Abbaspour H., Saeidi-Sar S., Afshari H., Abdel-Wahhab M.A. (2012): Tolerance of mycorrhiza infected pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) seedling to drought stress under glasshouse conditions. Journal of Plant Physiology, 169: 704–709.
Abo-Doma A., Edrees S., Abdel-Aziz S. (2011): The effect of mycorrhiza growth and expression of some genes in barley. Egyptian Journal of Genetics and Cytology, 40: 301–313.
Bates L.S., Waldren R.P., Teare I.D. (1973): Rapid determination of free proline for water-stress studies. Plant and Soil, 39: 205–207.
Begum N., Qin C., Ahanger M.A., Raza S., Khan M.I., Ashraf M., Ahmed N., Zhang L.X. (2019): Role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in plant growth regulation: implications in abiotic stress tolerance. Frontiers in Plant Science, 10: 1068.
Chandrakar V., Keshavkant S. (2018): Nitric oxide and dimethylthiourea up-regulates pyrroline-5-carboxylate synthetase expression to improve arsenic tolerance in Glycine max L. Environmental Progress and Sustainable Energy, 38: 402–409.
Chi G.-G., Srivastava A.K., Wu Q.S. (2018): Exogenous easily extractable glomalin-related soil protein improves drought tolerance of trifoliate orange. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 64: 1341–1350.
Chun S.C., Paramasivan M., Chandrasekaran M. (2018): Proline accumulation influenced by osmotic stress in arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiotic plants. Frontiers in Microbiology, 9: 2525.
Gao H.F., Peng F.T., Xiao Y.S., Zhang Y.F., Wang G.D., Sun X.W., He Y. (2019): Physiological and biological mechanisms of molybdenum on alleviating chilling stress of peach leaves. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Fertilizers, 25: 1211–1221.
Garg N., Baher N. (2013): Role of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis in proline biosynthesis and metabolism of Cicer arietinum L. (chickpea) genotypes under salt stress. Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 32: 767–778.
Guo C., Huang Y.M., Wu Q.S., Li S. (2015): Effects of AM fungi on proline content and its metabolic enzymes’ activity of peach root system under waterlogging stress. Guizhou Agricultural Sciences, 43: 51–53.
He J.D., Chi G.G., Zou Y.N., Shu B., Wu Q.S., Srivastava A.K., Kuča K. (2020): Contribution of glomalin-related soil proteins to soil organic carbon in trifoliate orange. Applied Soil Ecology, 154: 103592.
He J.D., Dong T., Wu H.H., Zou Y.N., Wu Q.S., Kuča K. (2019): Mycorrhizas induce diverse responses of root TIP aquaporin gene expression to drought stress in trifoliate orange. Scientia Horticulturae, 243: 64–69.
Kenneth J.L., Schmittgen T.D. (2001): Analysis of relative gene expression data using real-time quantitative PCR and 2–ΔΔCT method. Methods, 25: 402–408.
Li S.H. (1993): The response of sensitive periods of fruit tree growth, yield and quality to water stress and water seving irrigation. Plant Physiology Communications, 29: 10–16.
Lin H.H., Lin K.H., Huang M.Y., Su Y.R. (2020): Use of non-destructive measurements to identify cucurbit species (Cucurbita maxima and Cucurbita moschata) tolerant to waterlogged conditions. Plants, 9: 1226.
Lü L.H., Zou Y.N., Wu Q.S. (2019): Mycorrhizas mitigate soil replant disease of peach through regulating root exudates, soil microbial population, and soil aggregate stability. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 50: 909–921.
Ma L.M., Wang P.T., Wang S.G. (2014): Effect of flooding time length on mycorrhizal colonization of three AM fungi in two wetland plants. Environmental Science, 35: 263–270.
Meng L.L., He J.D., Zou Y.N., Wu Q.S., Kuča K. (2020): Mycorrhiza-released glomalin-related soil protein fractions contribute to soil total nitrogen in trifoliate orange. Plant, Soil and Environment, 66: 183–189.
Neto D., Carvalho L.M., Cruz C., Martins-Loução M.A. (2006): How do mycorrhizas affect C and N relationships in flooded Aster tripolium plants? Plant and Soil, 279: 51–63.
Osundina M.A. (1998): Nodulation and growth of mycorrhizal Casuarina equisetifolia J.R. and G. First in response to flooding. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 26: 95–99.
Phillips J.M., Hayman D.S. (1970): Improved procedures for clearing roots and staining parasitic and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 55: 158–161.
Porcel R., Azcón R., Ruiz-Lozano J.M. (2004): Evaluation of the role of genes encoding for Δ1-pyrroline-5-carboxlyate synthetase (P5CS) during drought stress in arbuscular mycorrhizal Glycine max and Lactuca sativa plants. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 65: 211–221.
Quan X.Q., Zhang Y.J., Shan L., Bi Y.P. (2007): Advances in proline metabolism researches of higher plants. Biotechnology Bulletin, 1: 14–18.
Wang K., Liu Y.X., Dong K.H., Dong J., Kang J., Yang Q.C., Zhou H., Sun Y. (2011): The effect of NaCl on proline metabolism in Saussurea amara seedlings. African Journal of Biotechnology, 10: 2886–2893.
Wang M., Liu D.W., Zeng H.Y., Xiong L., Wu J.B., Qiu L., Zhang W.C., Li L. (2013): Review on waterlogging damage and tolerance mechanism of crop. Crop Research, 27: 284–287.
Wirsel S.G.R. (2004): Homogenous stands of a wetland grass harbour diverse consortia of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 48: 129–138.
Wu Q.S., Li G.H., Zou Y.N. (2011): Roles of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on growth and nutrient acquisition of peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) seedlings. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 21: 746–750.
Wu Q.S., Srivastava A.K., Zou Y.N. (2013a): AMF-induced tolerance to drought stress in citrus: a review. Scientia Horticulturae, 164: 77–87.
Wu Q.S., Zou Y.N., Huang Y.M. (2013b): The arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Diversispora spurca ameliorates effects of waterlogging on growth, root system architecture and antioxidant enzyme activities of citrus seedlings. Fungal Ecology, 6: 37–43.
Wu H.H., Zou Y.N., Rahman M.M., Ni Q.D., Wu Q.S. (2017): Mycorrhizas alter sucrose and proline metabolism in trifoliate orange exposed to drought stress. Scientific Reports, 7: 42389.
Wu S., Sui X., Zhang T., Chen Y.T., Zhu D.G., Cui F.X., Yang L.B. (2019a): Research on the progress of AMF in wetland. Territory and Natural Resources Study, 6: 80–84.
Wu Q.S., He J.D., Srivastava A.K., Zou Y.N., Kuča K. (2019b): Mycorrhizas enhance drought tolerance of citrus by altering root fatty acid compositions and their saturation levels. Tree Physiology, 39: 1149–1158.
Xiao Y.S. (2015): Effects of aeration cultivation on root architecture and the growth of peach trees. [Ph.D. Thesis] Tai-an, Shandong Agricultural University, 1–103.
Xie M.M., Zou Y.N., Wu Q.S., Zhang Z.Z., Kuča K. (2020): Single or dual inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and rhizobia regulates plant growth and nitrogen acquisition in white clover. Plant, Soil and Environment, 66: 287–294.
Zhang F., Zou Y.N., Wu Q.S., Kuča K. (2020): Arbuscular mycorrhizas modulate root polyamine metabolism to enhance drought tolerance of trifoliate orange. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 171: 103926.
Zhao F.G., Sun C., Liu Y.L., Zhang W.H., Liu Z.P. (2002): Effects of ABA and NaCl on metabolism of polyamines and proline in Suaeda glauca Bunge. Journal of Plant Physiology and Molecular Biology, 28: 117–120.
Zou Y.N., Srivastava A.K., Wu Q.S. (2016): Glomalin: a potential soil conditioner for perennial fruits. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 18: 293–297.
Zou Y.N., Srivastava A.K., Wu Q.S., Huang Y.M. (2014): Increasing tolerance of trifoliate orange (Poncirus trifoliata) seedlings to waterlogging after inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 24: 1415–1420.
Zou Y.N., Wu Q.S., Huang Y.M., Ni Q.D., He X.H. (2013): Mycorrhizal-mediated lower proline accumulation in Poncirus trifoliata under water deficit derives from the integration of inhibition of proline synthesis with increase of proline degradation. PLoS ONE, 8: e80568.
Zou Y.N., Wu Q.S., Kuča K. (2020): Unraveling the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in mitigating the oxidative burst of plants under drought stress. Plant Biology.
download PDF

© 2022 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Prohlášení o přístupnosti