Systematicness of glomalin in roots and mycorrhizosphere of a split-root trifoliate orange
Understanding the behavior of mycorrhiza-originated glomalin, either of plant or soil origin, is anticipated to facilitate better opportunities of modulating antioxidants and carbon distribution in plants. In this study, trifoliate orange seedlings with half of roots were colonized by Acaulospora scrobiculata and Funneliformis mosseae in a split-root rootbox. Mycorrhizal inoculation showed a significantly higher plant biomass of trifoliate orange, regardless of mycorrhizal species. Glomalin-related root protein showed a systematic increase in non-mycorrhiza-inoculated chamber under inoculation with A. scrobiculata and F. mosseae than under non-mycorrhizal inoculation. Similar increase was also observed in easily extractable glomalin-related soil protein and total glomalin-related soil protein as a result of F. mosseae colonization only. Mean weight diameter and soil organic carbon were significantly higher under mycorrhization than non-mycorrhization, irrespective of mycorrhized or non-mycorrhized chamber. Mycorrhizal inoculation stimulated an increase in soil protease activity in the mycorrhized chamber, without any distinctive change in the non-mycorrhized chamber. These results, hence, suggested that mycorrhization conferred a systematic increase in glomalin synthesis in roots and soils, collectively, aiding in better aggregate stability and soil carbon sequestration.
Bethlenfalvay Gabor J., Ames Robert N. (1987): Comparison of Two Methods for Quantifying Extraradical Mycelium of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi1. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 51, 834- https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1987.03615995005100030049x
Bradford Marion M. (1976): A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry, 72, 248-254 https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(76)90527-3
Cao C.J., Zhang Z.M., Zhou L.K. (1982): Comparisons of determined methods of several soil protease activities. Chinese Journal of Soil Science, 13: 39–40.
Kemper W., Rosenau R. (1986): Aggregate stability and size distribution. In: Klute A. (ed.): Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 1. Physical and Mineralogical Methods. Agronomy Monograph. Madison, American Society of Agronomy and Soil Science Society of America, 425–442.
Lerat Sylvain, Lapointe Line, Gutjahr Sylvain, Piche Yves, Vierheilig Horst (2003): Carbon partitioning in a split-root system of arbuscular mycorrhizal plants is fungal and plant species dependent. New Phytologist, 157, 589-595 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-8137.2003.00691.x
Lovelock Catherine E., Wright Sara F., Clark Deborah A., Ruess Roger W. (2004): Soil stocks of glomalin produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi across a tropical rain forest landscape. Journal of Ecology, 92, 278-287 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0022-0477.2004.00855.x
Matsumoto S., Yamagata M., Koga N., Ae N. (2001): Identification of organic forms of nitrogen in soils and possible direct uptake by plants. Developments in Plant and Soil Science, 92: 208–209.
Ortas Ibrahim, Ustuner Omer (2014): Determination of different growth media and various mycorrhizae species on citrus growth and nutrient uptake. Scientia Horticulturae, 166, 84-90 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2013.12.014
Pal Ajay (2014): Role of Glomalin in Improving Soil Fertility: A Review. International Journal of Plant & Soil Science, 3, 1112-1129 https://doi.org/10.9734/IJPSS/2014/11281
Phillips J.M., Hayman D.S. (1970): Improved procedures for clearing roots and staining parasitic and vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for rapid assessment of infection. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 55, 158-IN18 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0007-1536(70)80110-3
Rillig Matthias C. (2004): Arbuscular mycorrhizae, glomalin, and soil aggregation. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 84, 355-363 https://doi.org/10.4141/S04-003
Rillig M.C., Wright S.F., Nichols K.A., Schmidt W.F., Torn M.S. (2001): Large contribution of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi to soil carbon pools in tropical forest soils. Plant and Soil, 233: 167–177. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1010364221169
Rosier Carl L., Piotrowski Jeffrey S., Hoye Andrew T., Rillig Matthias C. (2008): Intraradical protein and glomalin as a tool for quantifying arbuscular mycorrhizal root colonization. Pedobiologia, 52, 41-50 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pedobi.2008.02.002
Rowell D.L. (1994): Soil Science: Methods and Applications. Harlow, Essex, Longman Scientific and Technical, Longman Group UK Ltd.
Smith S.E., Read D.J. (2008): Mycorrhizal Symbiosis. 3rd Ed. Cambridge, Academic Press.
Walder F., Niemann H., Natarajan M., Lehmann M. F., Boller T., Wiemken A. (): Mycorrhizal Networks: Common Goods of Plants Shared under Unequal Terms of Trade. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, 159, 789-797 https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.112.195727
Wu Q.S., Cao M.Q., Zou Y.N., He X.H. (2014a): Direct and indirect effects of glomalin, mycorrhizal hyphae, and roots on aggregate stability in rhizosphere of trifoliate orange. Scientific Reports, 4: 5823.
Qiang-Sheng Wu, Ming-Qin Cao, Ying-Ning Zou, Chu Wu, Xin-Hua He (2016): Mycorrhizal colonization represents functional equilibrium on root morphology and carbon distribution of trifoliate orange grown in a split-root system. Scientia Horticulturae, 199, 95-102 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2015.12.039
Wu Q.S., Li Y., Zou Y.N., He X.H. (2015a): Arbuscular mycorrhiza mediates glomalin-related soil protein production and soil enzyme activities in the rhizosphere of trifoliate orange grown under different P levels. Mycorrhiza, 25: 121–130.
Wu Q.S., Srivastava A.K., Cao M.Q., Wang J. (2015b): Mycorrhizal function on soil aggregate stability in root zone and root-free hyphae zone of trifoliate orange. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 51: 831–825
Wu Q.S., Srivastava A.K., Wang S., Zeng J.X. (2015c): Exogenous application of EE-GRSP and changes in citrus rhizosphere properties. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 85: 802–806.
Wu Q.S., Wang S., Cao M.Q., Zou Y.N., Yao Y.X. (2014b): Tempo-spatial distribution and related functionings of root glomalin and glomalin-related soil protein in a citrus rhizosphere. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences, 24: 245–251.
Wu Qiang-Sheng, Xia Ren-Xue, Zou Ying-Ning (2008): Improved soil structure and citrus growth after inoculation with three arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi under drought stress. European Journal of Soil Biology, 44, 122-128 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejsobi.2007.10.001
Zhang R.Q., Lu Z.L., Chen J.W., Tang X., Zhao H.Q., Zhu H.H., Yao Q. (2011): The systematical effect of the influence of AM fungus on the antioxidase activities in the roots of clover plants. Microbiology China, 38: 322–327.
Zhang Ze-Zhi, Lou You-Gen, Deng Dao-Juan, Rahman Mohammed Mahabubur, Wu Qiang-Sheng, Zeng Ren-Sen (2015): Effects of Common Mycorrhizal Network on Plant Carbohydrates and Soil Properties in Trifoliate Orange–White Clover Association. PLOS ONE, 10, e0142371- https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142371
Zou Ying-Ning, Chen Xin, Srivastava AK, Wang Peng, Xiang Lei, Wu Qiang-Sheng (2016): Changes in rhizosphere properties of trifoliate orange in response to mycorrhization and sod culture. Applied Soil Ecology, 107, 307-312 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2016.07.004