Effects of application terms of three soil active herbicides on herbicide efficacy and reproductive ability for weeds in maize

https://doi.org/10.17221/561/2014-PSECitation:Andr J., Hejnák V., Jursík M., Fendrychová V. (2014): Effects of application terms of three soil active herbicides on herbicide efficacy and reproductive ability for weeds in maize. Plant Soil Environ., 60: 452-458.
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The aim of this work was to compare herbicide efficacy and reduction of weed reproduction after the application of three frequently used soil residual herbicides during pre-emergent (PRE) and early post-emergent (EPOST) application in maize. Plot field trials were carried out in Central Bohemia during two growing seasons (2010 and 2011). Good efficacy (88%, resp. 83%) was found in isoxaflutole + thiencarbazone (ISF + THC) and terbuthylazin + S-metolachlor (TBA + SMC) on Echinochloa crus-galli, especially in PRE application use. Efficacy on Amaranthus retroflexus was 91% at both tested application periods and there were no significant differences between experimental years. Significant differences in A. retroflexus control were recorded among all tested herbicides (ISF + THC > TBA + SMC > pendimethalin (PEM) + dimethenamid (DMA)). No significant differences between PRE and EPOST were recorded in efficacy on Chenopodium album. Significant differences in efficacy on C. album were recorded among all tested herbicides (ISF + THC > TBA + SMC > PEM + DMA). Mercurialis annua was the most tolerant tested weed, which was significantly better controlled at EPOST herbicide application (73%) compared to PRE application (32%). TBA + SMC showed a significantly higher efficacy on M. annua compared with other tested herbicides. Seed production of all tested weeds was strongly effected by weather conditions, which were significant during 2011, when there was higher than average precipitation during May and June. The most seeds were produced by A. retroflexus > C. album > E. crus-galli > M. annua. ISF + THC best reduced seed production of E. crus-galli, A. retroflexus and C. album, especially when applied at PRE. TBA + SMC best reduced seed production of M. annua. Weed competition on untreated control plots caused yield loss by 90%and 47% in 2011 and 2012, respectively, compared to treatments with the highest yield (ISF + THC).
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