Biomass yield and energy efficiency of willow depending on cultivar, harvesting frequency and planting density B., Gacek E., Wojciechowski R., Oleksy A., Kołodziejczyk M., Szewczyk W., Klimek-Kopyra A. (2019): Biomass yield and energy efficiency of willow depending on cultivar, harvesting frequency and planting density. Plant Soil Environ., 65: 377-386.
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The study aimed at comparing the yield of dry biomass and energy efficiency of 22 willow cultivars depending on the harvesting frequency and variable plant density. The field experiment was established in 2010. The willow cultivars were planted in two densities; 13 300 and 32 500 plants per ha. Among the compared cultivars in the second year (2013) of full production, high yield of dry matter was obtained from cvs. Tordis (33.1 t/ha/year), Inger (30.4 t/ha/year) and Klara (29.0 t/ha/year). After six years of cultivation, the highest aboveground dry matter was given by cvs. Tora (27.4 t/ha/year) and Tordis (27.0 t/ha/year). The gross calorific value of willow biomass ranged from 15.2–20.1 GJ/t dry weight. Greater energy efficiency (329.3 GJ/ha/year) occurred in willow cultivars collected in a two-year cycle than in the one-year cycle (286.4 GJ/ha/year). In the two-year cycle collected in the third year after planting, energy efficiency was greater (379.5 GJ/ha/year) than in the two-year cycle harvested in the sixth year after planting (279.15 GJ/ha/year). The initial slower growth of biomass does not determine plant yielding.

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