Soil respiration depending on different agricultural practices before maize sowing
The aim of the study was to compare soil respiration depending on different agricultural practices before sowing of maize (Zea mays L.). Results of the study were derived from the field experiment that was carried out in 2013–2015; the research indicates that soil respiration depends on cultivation method. The highest soil respiration was recorded in maize cultivation in monoculture using full tillage. The simplifications in maize cultivation caused a decrease of soil respiration, especially in direct sowing. The lowest level of this parameter was recorded in monoculture in direct sowing. Compared with other treatments, such as direct sowing, reduced tillage and crop rotation, soil respiration was higher by 65, 55 and 12%, respectively. The statistically significant differences in soil respiration in the tested agricultural practices were observed in the first date of measurement in all years of the study. The higher soil respiration values were noted in autumn. The yield of maize correlated with soil respiration, but stronger relationship was noted between soil respiration and grain yield of maize than straw yield. The simple regression analysis showed no linear relationship between soil respiration and evaporation, changes in soil moisture and biochemical parameters such as soil dehydrogenase activity, acid and alkaline phosphatase.
Alletto Lionel, Coquet Yves, Benoit Pierre, Heddadj Djilali, Barriuso Enrique (2010): Tillage management effects on pesticide fate in soils. A review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 30, 367-400 https://doi.org/10.1051/agro/2009018
Alvarez R (1995): Soil organic carbon, microbial biomass and CO2-C production from three tillage systems. Soil and Tillage Research, 33, 17-28 https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-1987(94)00432-E
Cook Freeman J., Orchard Valerie A. (2008): Relationships between soil respiration and soil moisture. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 40, 1013-1018 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2007.12.012
Curtin D., Wang H., Selles F., McConkey B.G., Campbell C.A. (2000): Tillage Effects on Carbon Fluxes in Continuous Wheat and Fallow–Wheat Rotations. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 64, 2080- https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2000.6462080x
Dao Thanh H. (1998): Tillage and Crop Residue Effects on Carbon Dioxide Evolution and Carbon Storage in a Paleustoll. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 62, 250- https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1998.03615995006200010032x
Fang C, Moncrieff J.B (2001): The dependence of soil CO2 efflux on temperature. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 33, 155-165 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0038-0717(00)00125-5
Fortin M.-C., Rochette P., Pattey E. (1996): Soil Carbon Dioxide Fluxes from Conventional and No-Tillage Small-Grain Cropping Systems. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 60, 1541- https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1996.03615995006000050036x
Fuentes Mariela, Hidalgo Claudia, Etchevers Jorge, De León Fernando, Guerrero Armando, Dendooven Luc, Verhulst Nele, Govaerts Bram (2012): Conservation agriculture, increased organic carbon in the top-soil macro-aggregates and reduced soil CO2 emissions. Plant and Soil, 355, 183-197 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-011-1092-4
Gałązka A., Gawryjołek K., Perzyński A., Gałązka R., Księżak J. (2017a): Changes in enzymatic activities and microbial communities in soil under long-term maize monoculture and crop rotation. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 26: 39–46.
Gałązka A., Gawryjołek K., Grządziel J., Frąc M., Księżak J. (2017b): Microbial community diversity and the interaction of soil under maize growth in different cultivation techniques. Plant, Soil and Environment, 63: 264–270.
Gałązka A., Gawryjołek K., Grządziel J., Księżak J. (2017c): Effect of different agricultural management practices on soil biological parameters including glomalin fraction. Plant, Soil and Environment, 63: 300–306.
Hryńczuk B., Weber R. (2004): Impact of tillage on the intensity of microbial transformation in soil and plant yield. Annales Universitatis Mariae Curie-Skłodowska, Sectio E, Agriculture, 59: 639–648. (In Polish)
Kirkegaard John A., Conyers Mark K., Hunt James R., Kirkby Clive A., Watt Michelle, Rebetzke Greg J. (2014): Sense and nonsense in conservation agriculture: Principles, pragmatism and productivity in Australian mixed farming systems. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 187, 133-145 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2013.08.011
Shirley Lamptey, Lingling Li, Junhong Xie, Renzhi Zhang, Zhuzhu Luo, Liqun Cai, Jie Liu (2017): Soil respiration and net ecosystem production under different tillage practices in semi-arid Northwest China . Plant, Soil and Environment, 63, 14-21 https://doi.org/10.17221/403/2016-PSE
Mijangos Iker, Pérez Roberto, Albizu Isabel, Garbisu Carlos (2006): Effects of fertilization and tillage on soil biological parameters. Enzyme and Microbial Technology, 40, 100-106 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enzmictec.2005.10.043
Ozpinar Sakine, Cay Anıl (2006): Effect of different tillage systems on the quality and crop productivity of a clay–loam soil in semi-arid north-western Turkey. Soil and Tillage Research, 88, 95-106 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2005.04.009
Rastogi M., Singh S., Pathak H. (2002): Emission of carbon dioxide from soil. Current Science, 82: 510–517.
Rashidi M., Keshavarzpour F. (2009): Effect of different tillage methods on grain yield and yield components of maize (Zea mays L.). International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 9: 274–277.
Runowska-Hryńczuk B., Hryńczuk B., Weber R. (1999): Biological activity of soil in different soil systems. Folia Universitatis Agriculturae Stetinensis, 195: 59–63.
Beata Rutkowska, Wiesław Szulc, Ewa Szara, Monika Skowrońska, Tamara Jadczyszyn (2017): Soil N<sub>2</sub>O emissions under conventional and reduced tillage methods and maize cultivation. Plant, Soil and Environment, 63, 342-347 https://doi.org/10.17221/291/2017-PSE
Sainju Upendra M., Jabro Jalal D., Stevens William B. (2008): Soil Carbon Dioxide Emission and Carbon Content as Affected by Irrigation, Tillage, Cropping System, and Nitrogen Fertilization. Journal of Environment Quality, 37, 98- https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq2006.0392
Smith K. A., Ball T., Conen F., Dobbie K. E., Massheder J., Rey A. (2003): Exchange of greenhouse gases between soil and atmosphere: interactions of soil physical factors and biological processes. European Journal of Soil Science, 54, 779-791 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1351-0754.2003.0567.x
Turski M., Wyczółkowski A. (2008): Influence of changes in land use on respiration and dehydrogenase activity of soils derived from loess. Acta Agrophysica, 12: 801–811. (In Polish)
Wididana G.N., Higa T. (1995): Effect of EM on the production of vegetable crops in Indonesia. In: Proceedings of the Effective Microorganisms for a Sustainable Agriculture and Environment. Saint-Jacques, Paris-France, 19–21 June 1995, 79‒84.
Wielgosz E., Szember A. (2006): Effect of selected plants on the abundance and activity of soil microorganisms. Annales UMCS, Sectio E, 61: 107–119. (In Polish)
Wolińska A., Stępniewska Z., Szymańska E. (2013): Dehydrogenase activity of soil microorganisms and the total DNA level in soil of different use. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, B3: 613‒621.
Wyczółkowski A.I., Wyczółkowska M., Dąbek-Szreniawska M. (2006): Effect of crops cultivated in crop rotation system on biological activity of soil. Acta Agrophysica, 8: 275–284. (In Polish)