The effect of mineral fertilisers and farmyard manure on grain and straw yield, quality and economical parameters of winter wheatý L., Vach M., Abrhám Z., Mensik L., Kunzová E. (2020): The effect of mineral fertilisers and farmyard manure on grain and straw yield, quality and economical parameters of winter wheat. Plant Soil Environ., 66: 249-256.
download PDF

In the years 2011–2014, winter wheat grain yield, qualitative and economic parameters were evaluated according to different fertiliser treatments: (1) control: unfertilised treatment; (2) farmyard manure (FYM) and (3) FYM + NPK (farmyard manure applied together with mineral NPK). The highest yields (8.10 t/ha) were recorded in the FYM + NPK treatment, while significantly lower yields (6.20 t/ha and 5.73 t/ha) were recorded in FYM and control treatments, respectively. Similarly, statistically significantly higher values of the quality parameters were found in the FYM + NPK treatment (13.55% of crude protein content and 43.56 mL of Zeleny’s sedimentation test), compared to control (10% and 22.44 mL, respectively). The modelling expert system (AGROTEKIS-Crop Technology and Economy) was used for the evaluation of economy. This software is based on technological methods of cultivation and norms of material input costs and costs of individual mechanised works. The economic benefits and profitability were evaluated for three different levels of grain market price. The highest gross profit per ha was recorded in the FYM + NPK treatment. According to the gross profit, the control treatment provided better results than the FYM treatment.

AGROTEKIS Expert System – Crop Technology and Economics (2018): Prague, Research Institute of Agricultural Engineering, p.r.i. Available at:
Barneix A.J. (2007): Physiology and biochemistry of source-regulated protein accumulation in the wheat grain. Journal of Plant Physiology, 164: 581–590.
Blandino M., Reyneri A. (2009): Effect of fungicide and foliar fertilizer application to winter wheat at anthesis on flag leaf senescence, grain yield, flour bread-making quality and DON contamination. European Journal of Agronomy, 30: 275–282.
Bushuk W. (1997): Wheat breeding for end-product use. In: Braun H.-J., Altay F., Kronstad W.E., Beniwal S.O.S., McNab A. (eds): Wheat: Prospects for Global Improvement. Developments in Plant Breeding. Volume 6. Dordrecht, Springer. ISBN 978-94-011-4896-2
Czech Statistical Office (2019): Sowing areas of agricultural crops – The Czech Republic. Prague, Czech Statistical Office. Available at:
De Stefanis E., Sgrulletta D., De Vita P., Pucciarmati S. (2002): Genetic variability to the effects of heat stress during grain filling on durum wheat quality. Cereal Research Communications, 30: 117–124.
Flagella Z., Giuliani M.M., Giuzio L., Volpi C., Masci S. (2010): Influence of water deficit on durum wheat storage protein composition and technological quality. European Journal of Agronomy, 33: 197–207.
Gürsoy S., Sessiz A., Malhi S.S. (2010): Short-term effects of tillage and residue management following cotton on grain yield and quality of wheat. Field Crop Research, 119: 260–268.
Hejcman M., Kunzová E. (2010): Sustainability of winter wheat production on sandy-loamy Cambisol in the Czech Republic: results from a long-term fertilizer and crop rotation experiment. Field Crops Research, 115: 191–199.
Hlisnikovský L., Kunzová E., Menšík L. (2016): Winter wheat: results of long-term fertilizer experiment in Prague-Ruzyně over the last 60 years. Plant, Soil and Environment, 62: 105–113.
Johansson E., Prieto-Linde M.L., Jönsson J.Ö. (2001): Effects of wheat cultivar and nitrogen application on storage protein composition and breadmaking quality. Cereal Chemistry, 78: 19–25.
Kunzová E., Hejcman M. (2009): Yield development of winter wheat over 50 years of FYM, N, P and K fertilizer application on black earth soil in the Czech Republic. Field Crops Reserch, 111: 226–234.
Kunzová E., Hejcman M. (2010): Yield development of winter wheat over 50 years of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium application on greyic Phaeozem in the Czech Republic. European Journal of Agronomy, 33: 166–174.
Li C.X., Ma S.C., Shao Y., Ma S.T., Zhang L.L. (2018): Effects of long-term organic fertilization on soil microbiologic characteristics, yield and sustainable production of winter wheat. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 17: 210–219.
López-Bellido L., Fuentes M., Castillo J.E., López-Garrido F.J. (1998): Effects of tillage, crop rotation and nitrogen fertilization on wheat-grain quality grown under rainfed Mediterranean conditions. Field Crop Research, 57: 265–276.
Mózner Z., Tabi A., Csutora M. (2012): Modifying the yield factor based on more efficient use of fertilizer – The environmental impacts of intensive and extensive agricultural practices. Ecological Indicators, 16: 58–66.
Rao A.C.S., Smith J.L., Jandhyala V.K., Papendick R.I., Parr J.F. (1993): Cultivar and climatic effects on the protein content of soft white winter wheat. In: Graybosch R.A., Peterson C.J., Baenziger P.S., Shelton D.R. (1995): Environmental Modification of Hard Red Winter Wheat Flour Protein Composition. Journal of Cereal Science, 22: 45–51
Rharrabti Y., Royo C., Villegas D., Aparicio N., García del Moral L.F. (2003): Durum wheat quality in Mediterranean environments:
I. Quality expression under different zones, latitudes and water regimes across Spain. Field Crops Research, 80: 123–131.
Rasmussen I.S., Dresbøll D.B., Thorup-Kristensen K. (2015): Winter wheat cultivars and nitrogen (N) fertilization – effects on root growth, N uptake efficiency and N use efficiency. European Journal of Agronomy, 68: 38–49.
Risberg K., Cederlund H., Pell M., Arthurson V., Schnürer A. (2017): Comparative characterization of digestate versus pig slurry and cow manure – chemical composition and effects on soil microbial activity. Waste Management, 61: 529–538.
Shahzad M., Farooq M., Jabran K., Hussain M. (2016): Impact of different crop rotations and tillage systems on weed infestation and productivity of bread wheat. Crop Protection, 89: 161–169.
Shewry P.R. (2007): Improving the protein content and composition of cereal grain. Journal of Cereal Science, 46: 239–250.
Townsend T.J., Sparkes D.L., Ramsden S.J., Glithero N.J., Wilson P. (2018): Wheat straw availability for bioenergy in England. Energy Policy, 122: 349–357.
Wang L.F., Sun J.T., Zhang Z.B., Xu P., Shangguan Z.P. (2018): Winter wheat grain yield in response to different production practices and soil fertility in northern China. Soil and Tillage Research, 176: 10–17.
Wieser H., Seilmeier W. (1998): The influence of nitrogen fertilisation on quantities and proportions of different protein types in wheat flour. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 76: 49–55.<49::AID-JSFA950>3.0.CO;2-2
Yin C., Deng A.X., Zhang W.J., Li W., Qiao Y.Q., Yang T.M., Zheng C.Y., Cao C.F., Chen F. (2018): Long-term inorganic plus organic fertilization increases yield and yield stability of winter wheat. The Crop Journal, 6: 589–599.
download PDF

© 2020 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences