Windbreaks as part of climate-smart landscapes reduce evapotranspiration in vineyards, Western Cape Province, South Africa M., Littmann T., Kunneke A., du Toit B., Seifert T. (2020): Windbreaks as part of climate-smart landscapes reduce evapotranspiration in vineyards, Western Cape Province, South Africa. Plant Soil Environ., 66: 119-127.
download PDF

Under the conditions of climate change in South Africa, ecological and technical measures are needed to reduce the water consumption of irrigated crops. Windbreak hedges are long-rated systems in agriculture that significantly reduce wind speed. Their possibilities to reduce evapotranspiration and water demand are being investigated at a vineyard in the Western Cape Province, South Africa. Detailed measurements of meteorological parameters relevant for the computation of reference and crop-specific evapotranspiration following the FAO 56 approaches within a vineyard in the Western Cape Province of South Africa have shown the beneficial effect of an existing hedgerow consisting of 6 m high poplars (Populus simonii (Carrière) Wesm.). With reference to a control station in the open field, the mean wind speed in a position about 18 m from the hedgerow at canopy level (2 m) was reduced by 27.6% over the entire year and by 39.2% over the summer growing season. This effect leads to a parallel reduction of reference evapotranspiration of 15.5% during the whole year and of 18.4% over the growing season. When applying empirical crop-specific Kc values for well-irrigated grapes, the reduction of evapotranspiration is 18.8% over the summer growth period. The introduced tree shelterbelts are a suitable eco-engineering approach to reduce water consumption and to enhance water saving in vineyards.

Allen R., Pereira L., Raes D., Smith M. (1998): Crop Evapotranspiration – Guidelines for Computing Crop Water Requirements. Rome, FAO Irrigation and Drainage Papers, 56.
Araujo J.A., Abiodun B.J., Crespo O. (2016): Impacts of drought on grape yields in Western Cape, South Africa. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 123: 117–130.
Ben-Gal A., Yermiyahu U., Shani U., Veste M. (2008): Irrigating table grapes in arid regions with low quality water: effects of salinity and excess boron. ISHS Acta Horticulturae, 792: 107–114.
Benhin J.K.A. (2008): South African crop farming and climate change: an economic assessment of impacts. Global Environmental Change, 18: 666–678.
Bargmann C.J. (2003): Geology and Wine 7. Geology and wine production in the coastal region, Western Cape province, South Africa. Geoscience Canada, 30: 161–182.
Böhm C., Kanzler M., Freese D. (2014): Wind speed reductions as influenced by woody hedgerows grown for biomass in short rotation alley cropping systems in Germany. Agroforestry Systems, 88: 579–591.
Bonnardot V., Planchon O., Cautenet S. (2005): Sea breeze development under an offshore synoptic wind in the South-Western Cape and implications for the Stellenbosch wine-producing area. Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 81: 203–218.
Burel F. (1996): Hedgerows and their role in agricultural landscapes. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 15: 169–190.
Carter S. (2006): The projected influence of climate change on the South African wine industry. IIASA Interim Report, IR-06-043, 33. Available at:
Carey V.A., Archer E., Barbeau G., Saayman D. (2008): Viticultural terroirs in Stellenbosch, South Africa. II. The interaction of Cabernet-Sauvignon and Sauvignon Blanc with environment. Journal International des Sciences de la Vigne et du Vin, 42: 185–201.
Campi P., Palumbo A.D., Mastrorilli M. (2009): Effects of tree windbreak on microclimate and wheat productivity in a Mediterranean environment. European Journal of Agronomy, 30: 220–227.
Campi P., Palumbo A.D., Mastrorilli M. (2012): Evapotranspiration estimation of crops protected by windbreak in a Mediterranean region. Agricultural Water Management, 104: 153–162.
Christensen J.H., Hewitson B., Busuioc A., Chen A., Gao X., Held I., Jones R., Kolli R.K., Kwon W.-T., Laprise R., Magaña Rueda V., Mearns L., Menéndez C.G., Räisänen J., Rinke A., Whetton P. (2007): Regional climate projections. In: Solomon S., Qin D.H., Manning M., Marquis M., Averyt K., Tignor M.M.B., Miller H.L.Jr., Chen Z.L. (eds.): Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge, New York.
Cleugh H.A. (1998): Effects of windbreaks on airflow, microclimates and crop yields. Agroforestry Systems, 41: 55–84.
Cleugh H.A., Hughes D.E. (2002): Impact of shelter on crop microclimates: a synthesis of results from wind tunnel and filed experiments. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 42: 679–701.
CSAG (2018): Climate Systems Analysis Group. Cape Town, University of Cape Town. Available at:
Cui Q., Feng Z.S., Pfiz M., Veste M., Küppers M., He K.N., Gao J.R. (2012): Trade-off between shrub plantation and wind-breaking in the arid sandy lands of Ningxia, China. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 44: 1639–1649.
Everson C.S., Dye P.J., Gush M.B., Everson T.M. (2011): Water use of grasslands, agroforestry systems and indigenous forests. Water Research, 37: 781–788.
Frank C., Ruck B. (2005): Double-arranged mound-mounted shelterbelts: influence of porosity on wind reduction between the shelters. Environmental Fluid Mechanics, 5: 267–292.
Fryear D., Saleh A., Bilbro J., Schomberg M. (1998): Revised wind erosion equation. Technical Bulletin No. 1, Agricultural Research Service, Lubbock.
Foereid B., Bro R., Mogensen V.O., Porter J.R. (2002): Effects of windbreak strips of willow coppice – modelling and field experiment on barley in Denmark. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 93: 25–32.
Fauchereau N., Trzaska S., Rouault M., Richard Y. (2003): Rainfall variability and changes in southern Africa during the 20th century in the global warming context. Natural Hazards, 29: 139–154.
Halpern A.B.W., Meadows M.E. (2013): Fifty years of land use change in the Swartland, Western Cape, South Africa: characteristics, causes and consequences. South African Geographical Journal, 95: 38–49.
Kanzler M., Böhm C., Mirck J., Schmitt D., Veste M. (2019): Microclimate effects on evapotranspiration and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yield within a temperate agroforestry system. Agroforestry Systems, 93: 1821–1841.
Lang C.P., Merkt N., Geilfus C.-M., Graeff-Hönninger S., Simon J., Rennenberg H., Zörb C. (2018): Interaction between grapevines and trees: effects on water relations, nitrogen nutrition, and wine. Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science, 65: 224–239.
Lazzara P., Rana G. (2010): The use of crop coefficient approach to estimate actual evapotranspiration: a critical review for major crops under Mediterranean climate. Italian Journal of Agrometeorology, 15: 25–35.
Littmann T., Veste M. (2008): Evapotranspiration, transpiration and dewfall. In: Breckle S.-W., Yair A., Veste M. (eds): Arid Dune Ecosystems. The Nizzana Sands in the Negev Desert. Ecological Studies 200. Heidelberg, Springer, 183–200. ISBN-13: 978-3540754978
Peri P.L., Bloomberg M. (2002): Windbreaks in southern Patagonia, Argentina: a review of research on growth models, windspeed reduction, and effects on crops. Agroforestry Systems, 56: 129–144.
Mafongoya P.L., Peerbhay K., Jiri O., Nhamo N. (2018): Climate scenarios in relation to agricultural patterns of major crops in Southern Africa. In: Nhamo N., Chikoye D., Gondwe T. (eds): Smart Technologies for Sustainable Smallholder Agriculture: upscaling in Developing Countries. London, New York, Academic Press, 21–37. ISBN: 9780128105214
Hernández-Morcillo M., Burgess P., Mirck J., Pantera A., Plieninger T. (2018): Scanning agroforestry-based solutions for climate change mitigation and adaptation in Europe. Environmental Science and Policy, 80: 44–52.
Marshall J.K. (1967): The effect of shelter on the productivity of grasslands and field crops. Field Crop Abstracts, 20: 1–14.
Meadows M.E. (2015): The cape winelands. In: Grab S., Knight J. (eds.): Landscapes and Landforms of South Africa, World Geomorphological Landscapes. Springer, Heidelberg, 103–109. ISBN-13: 978-3319035598
Midgley G.F., Chapman R.A., Hewitson B., Johnston P., de Wit M., Ziervogel G., Mukheibir P., van Niekerk L., Tadross M., van Wilgen B.W., Kgope B., Morant P.D., Theron A., Scholes R.J., Forsyth G.G. (2005): A status quo, vulnerability and adaptation assessment of the physical and socio-economic effects of climate change in the Western Cape. Report to the Western Cape Government. Cape Town, CSIR Report No. ENV-S-C 2005-073, Stellenbosch.
NASA Langley Research Center (2020): Retrieved from NASA Power. Available at:
Novák V. (2012): Evapotranspiration in the Soil-Plant-Atmosphere System. Progress in Soil Science. Dordrecht, Springer Science and Business Media. ISBN 978-94-007-3840-9
Sánchez I.A., McCollin D.M. (2015): A comparison of microclimate and environmental modification produced by hedgerows and dehesa in the Mediterranean region: a study in the Guadarrama region, Spain. Landscape and Urban Planning, 143: 230–237.
Scherr S.J., Shames S., Friedman R. (2012): From climate-smart agriculture to climate-smart landscapes. Agriculture and Food Security, 1: 12.
Sheridan C.M., Bauer F.F., Burton S., Lorenzen L. (2005): A critical process analysis of wine production to improve cost, quality and environmental performance. Water Science and Technology, 51: 39–46.
Senyolo M.P., Long T.B., Block V., Omta O. (2018): How the characteristics of innovations impact their adoption: an exploration of climate-smart agricultural innovations in South Africa. Journal of Cleaner Production, 172: 3825–3840.
Veste M., Böhm C. (eds.) (2018): Agrarholz – Schnellwachsende Bäume in der Landwirtschaft. Heidelberg, Springer Spektrum, 490. ISBN 978-3-662-49931-3
Vigiak O., Sterk G., Warren A., Hagen L.J. (2003): Spatial modeling of wind speed around windbreaks. Catena, 52: 273–288.
Vink N., Deloire A., Bonnardot V., Ewert J. (2012): Climate change and the future of South Africa‘s wine industry. International Journal of Climate Change Strategies and Management, 4: 420–441.
Wang H., Takle E.S. (1997): Momentum budget and shelter mechanism of boundary-layer flow near a shelterbelt. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 82: 417–435.
Wang H., Takle E.S. (1995): A numerical simulation of boundary-layer flows near shelterbelts. Boundary-Layer Meteorology, 75: 141–173.
Western Cape Department of Agriculture (2016): Western Cape weather reports. Available at:
Western Cape Department of Agriculture (2018): Cape Farm Mapper 2.0.5. Available at:
Williams L.E., Phene C.J., Grimes D., Trout T.J. (2003): Water use of mature Thomson Seedless grapevines in California. Irrigation Science, 22: 11–18.
Yuan X., Wang L., Wood E.F. (2018): Anthropogenic intensification of southern African flash droughts as exemplified by the 2015/16 season. In: Herring S.C., Christidis N., Hoell A., Kossin J.P., Schreck C.J. III, Stott P.A. (eds.): Explaining Extreme Events of 2016 from a Climate Perspective. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 99: 86–90.
download PDF

© 2022 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Prohlášení o přístupnosti