Determination of the DNA changes in the artichoke seedlings (Cynara scolymus L.) subjected to lead and copper stresses Batir M., Candan F., Büyük İ. (2016): Determination of the DNA changes in the artichoke seedlings (Cynara scolymus L.) subjected to lead and copper stresses  . Plant Soil Environ., 62: 143-149.
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This study aims at determining the effects of lead (Pb) and copper (Cu) on the hyperaccumulator artichoke. The effect of Pb and Cu toxicity with different levels of concentrations (20, 40, 80, 160, 240, 320, 640 and 1280 ppm) caused a decrease in the root length and total soluble protein of the artichoke. As a result of treatment with the Pb and Cu solutions, the changes occurred in RAPD profiles of seedlings and revealed variations like increment and/or loss of bands compared to the control plants. These changes showed a decrease in genomic template stability (GTS, changes in RAPD profile) caused by genotoxicity. RAPD data and GTS values seemed consistent with the results of the root length measurements and total soluble protein analysis. In addition, it was seen that the genomic template stability was significantly affected by direct proportion of primary root length, root dry weight and root total soluble protein content in artichoke subjected to Pb and Cu stresses. As a result, it can be concluded that RAPD analysis based on the used primers in the current study can be applied in combination with physiological and biochemical parameters to measure genotoxic effects of lead and copper on artichoke plants.  
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