Biogeochemical cycles of chlorine in the coniferous forest ecosystem: practical implications
M. Matucha, N. Clarke, Z. Lachmanová, S.T. Forczek, K. Fuksová, M. Gryndlerhttps://doi.org/10.17221/67/2010-PSECitation:Matucha M., Clarke N., Lachmanová Z., Forczek S.T., Fuksová K., Gryndler M. (2010): Biogeochemical cycles of chlorine in the coniferous forest ecosystem: practical implications. Plant Soil Environ., 56: 357-367.
Chlorine – one of the most widespread elements on the Earth – is present in the environment as chloride ion or bound to organic substances. The main source of chloride ions is the oceans while organically bound chlorine (OCl) comes from various sources, including anthropogenic ones. Chlorinated organic compounds were long considered to be only industrial products; nevertheless, organochlorines occur plentifully in natural ecosystems. However, recent investigations in temperate and boreal forest ecosystems have shown them to be products of biodegradation of soil organic matter under participation of chlorine. It is important to understand both the inorganic and organic biogeochemical cycling of chlorine in order to understand processes in the forest ecosystem and dangers as a result of human activities, i.e. emission and deposition of anthropogenic chlorinated compounds as well as those from natural processes. The minireview presented below provides a survey of contemporary knowledge of the state of the art and a basis for investigations of formation and degradation of organochlorines and monitoring of chloride and organochlorines in forest ecosystems, which has not been carried out in the Czech Republic yet.Keywords:
chlorine cycle; chlorination; enzymatic; abiotic; organochlorines; adsorbable organic halogenes