The influence of mineral fertilisers, farmyard manure, liming and sowing rate on winter wheat grain yields

https://doi.org/10.17221/703/2017-PSECitation:Madaras M., Mayerová M., Kumhálová J., Lipavský J. (2018): The influence of mineral fertilisers, farmyard manure, liming and sowing rate on winter wheat grain yields. Plant Soil Environ., 64: 38-46.
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The influence of mineral fertilisers, liming, farmyard manure and sowing rate on the winter wheat grain yields was studied in a long-term field experiment at 4 sites under different soil and climatic conditions in the Czech Republic. A total of 135 partial fraction-factorial experiments were performed between 1980 and 2013 and evaluated using a statistical model with linear and quadratic terms for each factor. Yield trends demonstrated remarkable influence of fertilisation at two sites of lower starting productivity. Here, grain yields increased by 50% and 25% since the trial commencement, while the rate of yield increase was low at more productive sites. Yields were the most frequently influenced by nitrogen (N) fertilisation, uniformly at all sites. N response curves were strongly curvilinear, but these differed between sites and were affected by preceding crops. The relative frequency of statistically significant influences decreased in the following order: N (significant at α < 0.05 in 89% of all partial trials) > sowing rate (29%) > phosphorus (22%) > farmyard manure (15%) > potassium (12%) > liming (8%). This order and the frequencies of these influences are discussed with regard to relevant site and soil conditions.
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