Warming impacts on carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus distribution in soil water-stable aggregates
A five-year (2010–2015) field experiment was conducted to investigate warming impacts on organic carbon (OC), total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) contents and their ratios in bulk soil and soil water-stable aggregates in an alpine meadow of the Tibetan Plateau. Compared with unwarmed control, warming had no significant effects on OC, TN and TP contents and their ratios in bulk soil. The contents of OC, TN and TP associated with macroaggregates and microaggregates decreased, whereas those associated with silt + clay fractions significantly increased. The C:N and C:P ratios in macro- and microaggregates and silt + clay fractions decreased, with significant differences for C:P ratio in microaggregates and C:N and C:P ratios in silt + clay fractions. The results indicated that C, N and P were protected chemically in silt- and clay-size fractions under warming, which offset the loss of C, N and P protected physically by macro- and microaggregates. Both physically and chemically protected C decomposition proceeded relatively more rapidly or accumulated relatively more slowly than did N and P. Our results suggest that C, N and P distributions within soil aggregate size fractions influence their net changes in bulk soil under future climate change scenarios.
Alatalo Juha M., Jägerbrand Annika K., Juhanson Jaanis, Michelsen Anders, Ľuptáčik Peter (2017): Impacts of twenty years of experimental warming on soil carbon, nitrogen, moisture and soil mites across alpine/subarctic tundra communities. Scientific Reports, 7, 44489- https://doi.org/10.1038/srep44489
Cambardella C. A., Elliott E. T. (1993): Carbon and Nitrogen Distribution in Aggregates from Cultivated and Native Grassland Soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 57, 1071- https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1993.03615995005700040032x
Fang Xiang-Min, Chen Fu-Sheng, Wan Song-Ze, Yang Qing-Pei, Shi Jian-Min, Liu Jian (2015): Topsoil and Deep Soil Organic Carbon Concentration and Stability Vary with Aggregate Size and Vegetation Type in Subtropical China. PLOS ONE, 10, e0139380- https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0139380
Finzi Adrien C, Austin Amy T, Cleland Elsa E, Frey Serita D, Houlton Benjamin Z, Wallenstein Matthew D (2011): Responses and feedbacks of coupled biogeochemical cycles to climate change: examples from terrestrial ecosystems. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 9, 61-67 https://doi.org/10.1890/100001
Fu G., Zhang X.Z., Zhang Y.J., Shi P.L., Li Y.L., Zhou Y.T., Yang P.W., Shen Z.X. (2013): Experimental warming does not enhance gross primary production and above-ground biomass in the alpine meadow of Tibet. Journal of Applied Remote Sensing, 7: 6451–6465.
Guan Song, An Na, Zong Ning, He Yongtao, Shi Peili, Zhang Jinjing, He Nianpeng (2018): Climate warming impacts on soil organic carbon fractions and aggregate stability in a Tibetan alpine meadow. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 116, 224-236 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2017.10.011
Hudek Csilla, Stanchi Silvia, D’Amico Michele, Freppaz Michele (2017): Quantifying the contribution of the root system of alpine vegetation in the soil aggregate stability of moraine. International Soil and Water Conservation Research, 5, 36-42 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.iswcr.2017.02.001
IPCC (2014): Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contribution of Working Group I, II, and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Geneva, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
Kuzyakov Yakov, Biriukova Oxana, Turyabahika Francis, Stahr Karl (): Electrostatic method to separate roots from soil. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 164, 541- https://doi.org/10.1002/1522-2624(200110)164:5<541::AID-JPLN541>3.0.CO;2-H
Li Cuilan, Cao Zhiyuan, Chang Jingjing, Zhang Yue, Zhu Guili, Zong Ning, He Yongtao, Zhang Jinjing, He Nianpeng (2017): Elevational gradient affect functional fractions of soil organic carbon and aggregates stability in a Tibetan alpine meadow. CATENA, 156, 139-148 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2017.04.007
Li N., Wang G.X., Gao Y.H., Wang J.F. (2011): Warming effects on plant growth, soil nutrients, microbial biomass and soil enzymes activities of two alpine meadows in Tibetan Plateau. Polish Journal of Ecology, 59: 25–35.
Lu R. (2000): Analytical Methods for Soil Agricultural Chemistry. Beijing, China Agricultural Science and Technology Press. (In Chinese)
O'Brien Sarah L., Jastrow Julie D. (2013): Physical and chemical protection in hierarchical soil aggregates regulates soil carbon and nitrogen recovery in restored perennial grasslands. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 61, 1-13 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2013.01.031
Ren Guoyu, Ding Yihui, Zhao Zongci, Zheng Jingyun, Wu Tongwen, Tang Guoli, Xu Ying (2012): Recent progress in studies of climate change in China. Advances in Atmospheric Sciences, 29, 958-977 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00376-012-1200-2
Rui Yichao, Wang Yanfen, Chen Chengrong, Zhou Xiaoqi, Wang Shiping, Xu Zhihong, Duan Jichuang, Kang Xiaoming, Lu Shunbao, Luo Caiyun (2012): Warming and grazing increase mineralization of organic P in an alpine meadow ecosystem of Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, China. Plant and Soil, 357, 73-87 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-012-1132-8
Shi Changguang, Sun Geng, Zhang Hongxuan, Xiao Bingxue, Ze Bai, Zhang Nannan, Wu Ning, Hui Dafeng (2014): Effects of Warming on Chlorophyll Degradation and Carbohydrate Accumulation of Alpine Herbaceous Species during Plant Senescence on the Tibetan Plateau. PLoS ONE, 9, e107874- https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107874
Six J, Bossuyt H, Degryze S, Denef K (2004): A history of research on the link between (micro)aggregates, soil biota, and soil organic matter dynamics. Soil and Tillage Research, 79, 7-31 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2004.03.008
TISDALL J. M., OADES J. M. (1982): Organic matter and water-stable aggregates in soils. Journal of Soil Science, 33, 141-163 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.1982.tb01755.x
Totsche Kai Uwe, Amelung Wulf, Gerzabek Martin H., Guggenberger Georg, Klumpp Erwin, Knief Claudia, Lehndorff Eva, Mikutta Robert, Peth Stephan, Prechtel Alexander, Ray Nadja, Kögel-Knabner Ingrid (): Microaggregates in soils. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, , - https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.201600451
Verchot Louis V., Dutaur Laure, Shepherd Keith D., Albrecht Alain (2011): Organic matter stabilization in soil aggregates: Understanding the biogeochemical mechanisms that determine the fate of carbon inputs in soils. Geoderma, 161, 182-193 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2010.12.017
Wang J.F., Wu Q.B. (2013): Impact of experimental warming on soil temperature and moisture of the shallow active layer of wet meadows on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Cold Regions Science and Technology, 90–91: 1–8.
Wang Xuexia, Dong Shikui, Gao Qingzhu, Zhou Huakun, Liu Shiliang, Su Xukun, Li Yuanyuan (2014): Effects of short-term and long-term warming on soil nutrients, microbial biomass and enzyme activities in an alpine meadow on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau of China. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 76, 140-142 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2014.05.014
Yang Zhihui, Singh Bal Ram, Hansen Sissel (2007): Aggregate associated carbon, nitrogen and sulfur and their ratios in long-term fertilized soils. Soil and Tillage Research, 95, 161-171 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2006.12.003
Yu C.Q., Shen Z.X., Zhang X.Z., Sun W., Fu G. (2014): Response of soil C and N, dissolved organic C and N, and inorganic N to short-term experimental warming in an alpine meadow on the Tibetan Plateau. The Scientific World Journal, 2014: 152576.
Zhang B., Shi P., He Y., Zhang X., Li Q. (2009): The climate feature of Damxung alpine meadow carbon flux research station on the Tibetan Plateau. Journal of Mountain Science, 27: 88–95. (In Chinese)
Zhang T., Yang S.B., Guo R., Guo J.X. (2016): Warming and nitrogen addition alter photosynthetic pigments, sugars and nutrients in a temperate meadow ecosystem. PLoS One, 11: e0155375.
Zhang Xian-Zhou, Shen Zhen-Xi, Fu Gang (2015): A meta-analysis of the effects of experimental warming on soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics on the Tibetan Plateau. Applied Soil Ecology, 87, 32-38 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2014.11.012
Zhao Jinsong, Chen Shan, Hu Ronggui, Li Yayu (2017): Aggregate stability and size distribution of red soils under different land uses integrally regulated by soil organic matter, and iron and aluminum oxides. Soil and Tillage Research, 167, 73-79 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2016.11.007
Zhong Xiao-lan, Li Jiang-tao, Li Xiao-jia, Ye Yong-chang, Liu Song-song, Hallett Paul D., Ogden Michael R., Naveed Muhammad (2017): Physical protection by soil aggregates stabilizes soil organic carbon under simulated N deposition in a subtropical forest of China. Geoderma, 285, 323-332 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2016.09.026