The cultivation of plants under the covers made of synthetic polymers brings many benefits, however, it is associated with the need to utilize or recycle these materials after the period of their use. Such problems are not caused by the covers made of natural polymers. The aim of the study carried out in the years 2013–2014 was to determine an effect of covers made of biopolymers and synthetic polymers on thermal conditions and potato yield. Field study was carried out under sandy loam and silty clay loam soils conditions. The temperature of silty clay loam soil under the covers was on average by 2.9°C higher than in the unprotected area, whereas sandy loam soil had the temperature higher by 2.5°C under biodegradable foil and by 2.7°C under standard foil. Temperature increase under non-woven fabrics was lower than under foils. The highest increase in marketable tuber yield after 40 days from emergence and in full maturity of potato plants was found after at application of standard non-woven fabric P17 (7.2 and 7.4 t/ha, respectively) and the lowest, i.e., 3.0 and 3.4 t/ha, respectively, under biodegradable foil. Cover type had no effect on the number of tubers formed on the first harvest date, whereas a significantly higher number of tubers was recorded in the full maturity of plants in the year characterized by a longer growing period of potato under non-woven P17 on sandy loam soil, and under biodegradable foil on silty clay loam soil conditions. A significant influence of cover on the average tuber weight on the first harvest date was found only on sandy loam soil under non-woven fabrics in 2013, as compared to full maturity of plants under biodegradable covers on sandy loam soil in 2013 and on silty clay loam soil under all covers in 2014.
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