The aim of this study was to compare the incidence of pathogens and pesticide residues in rapeseed samples depending on integrated and organic cultivation systems and cultivars. No pesticide residue was detected in seeds coming from the organic production system. However, trace amounts of pesticide residues admissible in rapeseed protection were detected for samples from integrated pest management. Seeds from both cultivation systems were most frequently infested by fungi Alternaria brassicicola and A. alternata. The greatest number of Leptosphaeria spp. cultures was obtained from seeds from organic cultivation.
Boerema G.H., de Gruyter J., Noordeloos M.E., Hamers M.E.C. (2004): Phoma Identification Manual. Differentiation of Specific and Intra-specific Taxa in Culture. Wallingford, CABI Publishing.
BRAZAUSKIENĖ Irena, PETRAITIENĖ Eglė, BRAZAUSKAS Gintaras, RONIS Antanas (2013): Susceptibility of winter rape cultivars to fungal diseases and their response to fungicide application. TURKISH JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURE AND FORESTRY, 37, 699-710 https://doi.org/10.3906/tar-1210-26
Bugge J. (2000): Rape seed for transpost 3: Organic rape cultivation is reality. Danish Center for Plant Oil Technology Note 9/11. Available at www folkcenter.dk
Drożdżyński Dariusz, Kowalska Jolanta (2009): Rapid analysis of organic farming insecticides in soil and produce using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 394, 2241-2247 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00216-009-2931-5
Harman Gary E., Howell Charles R., Viterbo Ada, Chet Ilan, Lorito Matteo (2004): Trichoderma species — opportunistic, avirulent plant symbionts. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 2, 43-56 https://doi.org/10.1038/nrmicro797
ISTA (2015): International Rules for Seed Testing. Basserdorf.
Jajor E., Wickiel G., Horoszkiewicz-Janka J. (2011): Fungi of the Alternaria genus and their toxic metabolites in seeds of winter oilseed rape. Progress in Plant Protection, 51: 1633–1638.
Jajor E., Mrówczyński M. (2013): Methodology of Integrated Protection of Winter and Spring Rape for Producers. Poznań, Institute of Plant Protection – NRI.
Kierzek R., Paradowski A., Krawczyk R. (2011): Effectiveness of weed control in maize (Zea mays L.) depending on the date and method of herbicide application. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum, Agricultura, 10: 57–73.
Kowalska J., Remlein-Starosta D. (2011): Studies on potential for non-chemical protection of winter rape in Poland. Journal of Research and Applications in Agricultural Engineering, 56: 220–223.
Kowalska J. (2014): Organically grown Brassica napus – Use of border strips and Trichoderma. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, Section B – Soil and Plant Science, 64: 529–536.
Lampkin N. (1990): Organic Farming. Ipswich, Farming Press.
MAUDE R. B., HUMPHERSON-JONES F. M. (1980): Studies on the seed-borne phases of dark leaf spot Alternaria brassicicola and grey leaf spot Alternaria brassicaeof brassicas. Annals of Applied Biology, 95, 311-319 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7348.1980.tb04752.x
Mader P. (): Soil Fertility and Biodiversity in Organic Farming. Science, 296, 1694-1697 https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1071148
Nerad D., Škeřík J., Kazda J., Kuchtová P., Baranyk P. (2009): Potential of line varieties of winter oilseed rape within organic growing technology. Scientia Agriculturae Bohemica, 40: 1–5.
Neri L., Baraldi R., Osti F., Di Marco S. (2008): Effects of Trichoderma harzianum applications on fresh prunning wounds in Actinidia deliciosa for the protection against pathogens associated with the ‘wood decay’ of kiwifruit. In: Proceedings of the Second Scientific Conference of ISOFAR ‘Cultivating the Future Based on AQ12 Science’ Organic Crop Production; Modena, 484–487.
Olesen J.E. (1999): Perspectives for research on crop rotations for organic farming. In: Olesen J.E., Ragnar E., Gooding M.J., Jensen E.S., Köpke U. (eds): Designing and Testing Crop Rotations for Organic Farming. In: Proceedings from an International Workshop. DARCOF Report, No. 1. Danish Research Centre for Organic Farming, 11–20.
Pavela R., Kazda J., Herda G. (2007): Influence of application term on effectiveness of some insecticides against brassica pod midge (Dasineura brassicae Winn.). Plant Protection Science, 43: 57–62.
RATHKE G, BEHRENS T, DIEPENBROCK W (2006): Integrated nitrogen management strategies to improve seed yield, oil content and nitrogen efficiency of winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus L.): A review. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 117, 80-108 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2006.04.006
Söchting H.P., Verreet J.-A. (2004): Effects of different cultivation systems (soil management, nitrogen fertilization) on the epidemics of fungal diseases in oilseed rape (Brassica napus L. var. napus). Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 111: 1–29.
Valantin-Morison Muriel, Meynard J. M. (2008): Diagnosis of limiting factors of organic oilseed rape yield. A survey of farmers’ fields. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 28, 527-539 https://doi.org/10.1051/agro:2008026
Weiher N., Kühne S., Böhm H., Heimbach U., Hoffmann H., Moll E. (2007): Regulation of pest insects in organic oilseed rape by neem, pyrethrum and sun flower oil. Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes, 59: 2011–2016.
West J. S., Fitt B. D. L., Leech P. K., Biddulph J. E., Huang Y.-J., Balesdent M.-H. (2002): Effects of timing of Leptosphaeria maculans ascospore release and fungicide regime on phoma leaf spot and phoma stem canker development on winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus) in southern England. Plant Pathology, 51, 454-463 https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-3059.2002.00726.x
Wu W.S., Chen T.-W. (1999): Development of a new semiselective medium for detecting Alternaria brassicicola in cruciferous seeds. Seed Science and Technology, 27: 397–409.