This study analysed the changes in the development of Avena sativa L. cultivated on soil contaminated with diesel oil (DO; 0, 7, 14 and 21 mL/kg of soil dry matter), and in the microbiological, biochemical, chemical and physico-chemical properties of the soil. In addition to basic fertilisation fulfilling the nutritional needs of the oat plant, finely ground barley straw and finely ground charcoal was also applied. The study revealed a highly toxic effect of DO on the growth and development of Avena sativa L. The uptake of macro- and micronutrients by the tested plant decreased significantly. The active bacteria were identified based on the analysis of 16S rRNA coding sequences. In objects contaminated with DO, a more rapid development of organotrophic bacteria, actinomyces and fungi was observed, as well as higher activity of dehydrogenases, catalase, urease, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase and β-glucosidase. In the soils contaminated with DO, more Corg and available and exchangeable potassium were found than in the non-contaminated soils. DO did not have such a significant effect on the contents of other elements in the soil. The use of charcoal and straw stimulated both the development of microorganisms and the activity of soil enzymes, yet it did not mitigate the adverse effect of DO on the growth or development of the oat plant.
Borowik Agata, Wyszkowska Jadwiga, Wyszkowski Mirosław (2017): Resistance of aerobic microorganisms and soil enzyme response to soil contamination with Ekodiesel Ultra fuel. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24, 24346-24363 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-017-0076-1
De Leij F. A. A. M., Whipps J. M., Lynch J. M. (1994): The use of colony development for the characterization of bacterial communities in soil and on roots. Microbial Ecology, 27, 81-97 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00170116
Fatima Kaneez, Afzal Muhammad, Imran Asma, Khan Qaiser M. (2015): Bacterial Rhizosphere and Endosphere Populations Associated with Grasses and Trees to be Used for Phytoremediation of Crude Oil Contaminated Soil. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 94, 314-320 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-015-1489-5
Hawrot-Paw M., Bąkowska T. (2014): Growth and development of selected plant species in the phytoremediation of diesel oil contaminated soil. Environment Protection Engineering, 40: 5–13.
Khalilova H.Kh. (2015): The impact of oil contamination on soil ecosystem. Biological and Chemical Research, 2015: 133–139.
Kosiorek Milena, Modrzewska Beata, Wyszkowski Mirosław (2016): Levels of selected trace elements in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), silver birch (Betula pendula L.), and Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) in an urbanized environment. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 188, - https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-016-5600-0
Kucharski J., Jastrzębska E. (2005): Effects of heating oil on the count of microorganisms and physico-chemical properties of soil. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 14: 189–198.
Kumari Babita, Singh D.P. (2016): A review on multifaceted application of nanoparticles in the field of bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons. Ecological Engineering, 97, 98-105 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2016.08.006
Kuppusamy Saranya, Thavamani Palanisami, Venkateswarlu Kadiyala, Lee Yong Bok, Naidu Ravi, Megharaj Mallavarapu (2017): Remediation approaches for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contaminated soils: Technological constraints, emerging trends and future directions. Chemosphere, 168, 944-968 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.10.115
Margesin R., Schinner F. (1997): Efficiency of indigenous and inoculated cold-adapted soil microorganisms for biodegradation of diesel oil in alpine soils. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 63: 2660–2664.
Martínez Álvarez L.M., Lo Balbo A., Mac Cormack W.P., Ruberto L.A.M. (2015): Bioremediation of a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated Antarctic soil: Optimization of a biostimulation strategy using response-surface methodology (RSM). Cold Regions Science and Technology, 119, 61-67 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coldregions.2015.07.005
Masy Thibaut, Demanèche Sandrine, Tromme Olivier, Thonart Philippe, Jacques Philippe, Hiligsmann Serge, Vogel Timothy M. (2016): Hydrocarbon biostimulation and bioaugmentation in organic carbon and clay-rich soils. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 99, 66-74 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2016.04.016
Meckenstock Rainer U., Boll Matthias, Mouttaki Housna, Koelschbach Janina S., Cunha Tarouco Paola, Weyrauch Philip, Dong Xiyang, Himmelberg Anne M. (2016): Anaerobic Degradation of Benzene and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology, 26, 92-118 https://doi.org/10.1159/000441358
Ramadass Kavitha, Megharaj Mallavarapu, Venkateswarlu Kadiyala, Naidu Ravi (2017): Ecotoxicity of measured concentrations of soil-applied diesel: Effects on earthworm survival, dehydrogenase, urease and nitrification activities. Applied Soil Ecology, 119, 1-7 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2017.05.017
Rusin Milena, Gospodarek Janina, Nadgórska-Socha Aleksandra (2015): The Effect of Petroleum-Derived Substances on the Growth and Chemical Composition of Vicia faba L.. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 24, 2157-2166 https://doi.org/10.15244/pjoes/41378
Sivitskaya V., Wyszkowski M. (2013): Changes in the content of some macroelements in maize (Zea mays L.) under effect of fuel oil after application of different substances to soil. Journal of Elementology, 18: 705–714.
Statsoft, Inc., Statistica (2015): Data Analysis Software System. (version 12.5) Available at: www.statsoft.com
Vázquez S., Nogales B., Ruberto L., Mestre C., Christie-Oleza J., Ferrero M., Bosch R., Mac Cormack W.P. (2013): Characterization of bacterial consortia from diesel-contaminated Antarctic soils: Towards the design of tailored formulas for bioaugmentation. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 77, 22-30 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2012.11.002
Wu B., Lan T., Lu D., Liu Z. (2014): Ecological and enzymatic responses to petroleum contamination. Environmental Science: Processes and Impacts, 16: 1501–1509.
Wyszkowska J., Kucharski M., Kucharski J. (2006): Application of the activity of soil enzymes in the evaluation of soil contamination by diesel oil. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 15: 501–506.