Cabbage seedlings were grown hydroponically to study the effects of different concentrations of seawater on the seedling growth, ion content under one-fourth strength Hoagland’s nutrient solution in the greenhouse. The biomass of various organs of cabbage seedlings as well as the whole plants was significantly higher in the treatments with 1 g and 2 g sea salt/L than the no-salt control, but the treatments with 4, 5 or 6 g sea salt/L caused a decrease in growth. Root/shoot ratio remained at the level of control regardless of the sea salt treatment. Na+ and Cl– concentration in different parts of cabbage seedlings increased significantly, whereas K+ and Ca2+ concentration generally increased at low concentrations of sea salt and then decreased with increasing seawater concentration. Sodium and K+ concentrations were significantly higher in the stems than roots and leaves regardless of the sea salt treatment. The sea salt treatment increased Mg2+ concentration in stems and leaves of cabbage seedlings. An increase in Na+ and Cl– concentration in roots, stems and leaves of cabbage seedlings was the main contributor to declining ratios of K+/Na+, Ca2+/Na+ and Mg2+/Na+. The obtained data suggest that cabbage seedlings have strong ability to sustain seawater stress by the regulation of transport and distribution of ions.
Abideen Zainul, Koyro Hans-Werner, Huchzermeyer Bernhard, Ahmed Muhammad Zaheer, Gul Bilquees, Khan M. Ajmal (2014): Moderate salinity stimulates growth and photosynthesis of Phragmites karka by water relations and tissue specific ion regulation. Environmental and Experimental Botany, 105, 70-76 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envexpbot.2014.04.009
Allakhverdiev S. I. (): Ionic and Osmotic Effects of NaCl-Induced Inactivation of Photosystems I and II in Synechococcus sp.. PLANT PHYSIOLOGY, 123, 1047-1056 https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.123.3.1047
Bayuelo-Jiménez Jeannette S, Debouck Daniel G, Lynch Jonathan P (2003): Growth, gas exchange, water relations, and ion composition of Phaseolus species grown under saline conditions. Field Crops Research, 80, 207-222 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-4290(02)00179-X
LONG Xiao-Hua, CHI Jin-He, LIU Ling, LI Qing, LIU Zhao-Pu (2009): Effect of Seawater Stress on Physiological and Biochemical Responses of Five Jerusalem Artichoke Ecotypes. Pedosphere, 19, 208-216 https://doi.org/10.1016/S1002-0160(09)60110-7
Long Xiaohua, Huang Zengrong, Zhang Zhenhua, Li Qing, Zed Rengel, Liu Zhaopu (2010): Seawater Stress Differentially Affects Germination, Growth, Photosynthesis, and Ion Concentration in Genotypes of Jerusalem Artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.). Journal of Plant Growth Regulation, 29, 223-231 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00344-009-9125-4
Meloni Diego Ariel, Gulotta Marta Rosalía, Martínez Carlos Alberto, Oliva Marco Antonio (2004): The effects of salt stress on growth, nitrate reduction and proline and glycinebetaine accumulation in Prosopis alba. Brazilian Journal of Plant Physiology, 16, 39-46 https://doi.org/10.1590/S1677-04202004000100006
Moller I.S., Tester M. (2007): Salinity tolerance of Arabidopsis: A good model for cereals? Trends in Plant Science, 12: 534–540.
Munns R, Schachtman DP, Condon AG (1995): The Significance of a Two-Phase Growth Response to Salinity in Wheat and Barley. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 22, 561- https://doi.org/10.1071/PP9950561
Niu X., Bressan R. A., Hasegawa P. M., Pardo J. M. (1995): Ion Homeostasis in NaCl Stress Environments. Plant Physiology, 109, 735-742 https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.109.3.735
Sun Jian, Chen Shao-Liang, Dai Song-Xiang, Wang Rui-Gang, Li Ni-Ya, Shen Xin, Zhou Xiao-Yang, Lu Cun-Fu, Zheng Xiao-Jiang, Hu Zan-Min, Zhang Zeng-Kai, Song Jin, Xu Yue (2009): Ion flux profiles and plant ion homeostasis control under salt stress. Plant Signaling & Behavior, 4, 261-264 https://doi.org/10.4161/psb.4.4.7918
Tang Xiaoli, Mu Xingmin, Shao Hongbo, Wang Hongyan, Brestic Marian (2014): Global plant-responding mechanisms to salt stress: physiological and molecular levels and implications in biotechnology. Critical Reviews in Biotechnology, , 1-13 https://doi.org/10.3109/07388551.2014.889080
White A. C., Colmer T. D., Cawthray G. R., Hanley M. E. (): Variable response of three Trifolium repens ecotypes to soil flooding by seawater. Annals of Botany, 114, 347-355 https://doi.org/10.1093/aob/mcu118
Wu G.-O., Jiao Q., Shui Q.-Z. (2015): Effect of salinity on seed germination, seedling growth, and inorganic and organic solutes accumulation in sunflower (Helianthus annus L.). Plant, Soil and Environment, 61: 220–226.
Yan Kun, Shao Hongbo, Shao Chuyang, Chen Peng, Zhao Shijie, Brestic Marian, Chen Xiaobing (2013): Physiological adaptive mechanisms of plants grown in saline soil and implications for sustainable saline agriculture in coastal zone. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum, 35, 2867-2878 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11738-013-1325-7
Zhang Huan Shi, Qin Feng Fei, Qin Pei, Pan Shao Ming (2014): Evidence that arbuscular mycorrhizal and phosphate-solubilizing fungi alleviate NaCl stress in the halophyte Kosteletzkya virginica: nutrient uptake and ion distribution within root tissues. Mycorrhiza, 24, 383-395 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00572-013-0546-3
Zhu Jian-Kang (2003): Regulation of ion homeostasis under salt stress. Current Opinion in Plant Biology, 6, 441-445 https://doi.org/10.1016/S1369-5266(03)00085-2
Zhu Z., Chen J., Zheng H.-L. (): Physiological and proteomic characterization of salt tolerance in a mangrove plant, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza (L.) Lam. Tree Physiology, 32, 1378-1388 https://doi.org/10.1093/treephys/tps097