Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv.) resistance to acetolactate synthase-inhibiting and other herbicides in rice in Turkey K., Tursun N., Ullah H., Datta A. (2020): Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv.) resistance to acetolactate synthase-inhibiting and other herbicides in rice in Turkey. Plant Soil Environ., 66: 357-365.
download PDF

Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) P. Beauv.) is one of the most yield-limiting weeds in rice in Turkey. Barnyardgrass resistance to common herbicides has been reported worldwide; however, such information is largely lacking in the country. The objective of this study was to determine the resistance spectrum of different barnyardgrass populations to the most commonly-used herbicides in rice in Turkey. The susceptibility of 40 barnyardgrass populations was evaluated. The samples were collected from fields with intensive rice cultivation in Balıkesir and Çanakkale provinces. Seeds were picked from barnyardgrass plants suspected to be herbicide-resistant because of their survival in the rice fields after herbicides application. A total of 38 populations were resistant to penoxsulam, and the resistance index of these populations ranged from 2 to 39. A total of 24 out of the 38 barnyardgrass populations showed a GR50 (herbicide dose causing a 50% reduction in plant dry matter) value higher than the recommended penoxsulam dose (20.2 g a.i./ha) in rice. Among these 24 barnyardgrass populations, 25, 29.2 and 45.8% populations exhibited high, moderate and low level of penoxsulam resistance, respectively. From the penoxsulam-resistant populations (38), the response of 14 populations (low to high resistance to penoxsulam) to six commonly-used herbicides for barnyardgrass control in rice was evaluated. The selected 14 populations showed resistance to almost all herbicides tested, with the lowest average resistance being determined against profoxydim and the highest average resistance against molinate herbicide. Resistance levels against six commonly-used herbicides in rice ranged from 2 to 34.


Avcı Ç.M., Uygur F.N. (2008): Investigation on resistance of Phalaris brachystachys Link. (short spiked canarygrass), a problem weed of wheat fields in Çukurova Region against some wheat herbicides. Türkiye Herboloji Dergisi, 12: 49–63. (In Turkish)
Bagavathiannan M.V., Norsworthy J.K., Smith K.L., Neve P. (2012): Seed production of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) in response to time of emergence in cotton and rice. Journal of Agricultural Science, 150: 717–724.
Bajwa A.A., Jabran K., Shahid M., Ali H.H., Chauhan B.S., Ehsanullah (2015): Eco-biology and management of Echinochloa crus-galli. Crop Protection, 75: 151–162.
Beckie H.J., Tardif F.J. (2012): Herbicide cross resistance in weeds. Crop Protection, 35: 15–28.
Burgos N.R., Tranel P.J., Streibig J.C., Davis V.M., Shaner D., Norsworthy J.K., Ritz C. (2013): Review: confirmation of resistance to herbicides and evaluation of resistance levels. Weed Science, 61: 4–20.
Chauhan B.S., Abugho S.B. (2013): Effects of water regime, nitrogen fertilization, and rice plant density on growth and reproduction of lowland weed Echinochloa crus-galli L. Crop Protection, 54: 142–147.
Chen G.Q., Wang Q., Yao Z.W., Zhu L.F., Dong L.Y. (2016): Penoxsulam-resistant barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) in rice fields in China. Weed Biology and Management, 16: 16–23.
Datta A., Ullah H., Tursun N., Pornprom T., Knezevic S.Z., Chauhan B.S. (2017): Managing weeds using crop competition in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. Crop Protection, 95: 60–68.
Datta A., Knezevic S.Z. (2013): Chapter six – flaming as an alternative weed control method for conventional and organic agronomic crop production systems: a review. Advances in Agronomy, 118: 399–428.
Datta A., Rapp R.E., Scott J.E., Charvat L.D., Zawierucha J., Knezevic S.Z. (2013): Spring-applied saflufenacil and imazapic provided longer lasting Euphorbia esula L. control than fall applications. Crop Protection, 47: 30–34.
Fang J.P., Liu T.T., Zhang Y.H., Li J., Dong L.Y. (2019): Target site-based penoxsulam resistance in barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) from China. Weed Science, 67: 281–287.
FAO (2018): Crop Statistics. Rome, Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations. Available at: (accessed 10 February 2020)
Guo L.B., Qiu J., Ye C.Y., Jin G.L., Mao L.F., Zhang H.Q., Yang X.F., Peng Q., Wang Y.Y., Jia L., Lin Z.X., Li G.M., Fu F., Liu C., Chen L., Shen E.H., Wang W.D., Chu Q.J., Wu D.Y., Yu S.L., Xia C.Y., Zhang Y.F., Zhou X.M., Wang L.F., Wu L.M., Song W.J., Wang Y.F., Shu Q.Y., Aoki D., Yumoto E., Yokota T., Miyamoto K., Okada K., Kim D.-S., Cai D.G., Zhang C.L., Lou Y.G., Qian Q., Yamaguchi L.J., Yamane H., Kong C.-H., Timko M.P., Bai L.Y., Fan L.J. (2017): Echinochloa crus-galli genome analysis provides insight into its adaptation and invasiveness as a weed. Nature Communications, 8: 1031.
Heap I. (2014): Global perspective of herbicide-resistant weeds. Pest Management Science, 70: 1306–1315.
Heap I. (2020): The International Herbicide-Resistant Weed Database. Available at: (accessed 12 May 2020)
Hoagland R.E., Norsworthy J.K., Carey F., Talbert R.E. (2004): Metabolically based resistance to the herbicide propanil in Echinochloa species. Weed Science, 52: 475–486.
Holt J.S. (1992): History of identification of herbicide-resistant weeds. Weed Technology, 6: 615–620.
Isık D., Mennan H., Ecevit O. (2000): Determination of wild species in rice fields in Samsun province. Journal of Agricultural Faculty of Ondokuz Mayıs University, 15: 99–104.
Iwakami S., Hashimoto M., Matsushima K.-I., Watanabe H., Hamamura K., Uchino A. (2015): Multiple-herbicide resistance in Echinochloa crus-galli var. formosensis, an allohexaploid weed species, in dry-seeded rice. Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology, 119: 1–8.
Kaya Altop E., Mennan H. (2011): Genetic and morphologic diversity of Echinochloa crus-galli populations from different origins. Phytoparasitica, 39: 93–102.
Knezevic S.Z., Streibig J.C., Ritz C. (2007): Utilizing R software package for dose-response studies: the concept and data analysis. Weed Technology, 21: 840–848.
Knezevic S.Z., Datta A., Scott J., Klein R.N., Golus J. (2009): Problem weed control in glyphosate-resistant soybean with glyphosate tank mixes and soil-applied herbicides. Weed Technology, 23: 507–512.
Knezevic S.Z., Datta A. (2015): The critical period for weed control: revisiting data analysis. Weed Science, 63: 188–202.
Kniss A.R. (2018): Genetically engineered herbicide-resistant crops and herbicide-resistant weed evolution in the United States. Weed Science, 66: 260–273.
Kraehmer H., Jabran K., Mennan H., Chauhan B.S. (2016): Global distribution of rice weeds – a review. Crop Protection, 80: 73–86.
Leskovsek R., Datta A., Simoncic A., Knezevic S.Z. (2012): Influence of nitrogen and plant density on the growth and seed production of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.). Journal of Pest Science, 85: 527–539.
Lopez-Martinez N., Salva A.P., Finch R.P., Marshall G., De Prado R. (1999): Molecular markers indicate intraspecific variation in the control of Echinochloa spp. with quinclorac. Weed Science, 47: 310–315.
Mahmood K., Mathiassen S.K., Kristensen M., Kudsk P. (2016): Multiple herbicide resistance in Lolium multiflorum and identification of conserved regulatory elements of herbicide resistance genes. Frontiers in Plant Science, 7: 1160.
Matzenbacher F.O., Bortoly E.D., Kalsing A., Merotto A.Jr. (2015): Distribution and analysis of the mechanisms of resistance of barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) to imidazolinone and quinclorac herbicides. Journal of Agricultural Science, 153: 1044–1058.
Mennan H., Ngouajio M., Sahin M., Isık D., Kaya Altop E. (2012): Competitiveness of rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivars against Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv. in water-seeded production systems. Crop Protection, 41: 1–9.
Miller M.R., Norsworthy J.K., Scott R.C. (2018): Evaluation of florpyrauxifen-benzyl on herbicide-resistant and herbicide-susceptible barnyardgrass accessions. Weed Technology, 32: 126–134.
Norsworthy J.K., Talbert R.E., Hoagland R.E. (1998): Chlorophyll fluorescence for rapid detection of propanil-resistant barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli). Weed Science, 46: 163–169.
Norsworthy J.K., Wilson M.J., Scott R.C., Gbur E.E. (2014): Herbicidal activity on acetolactate synthase-resistant barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) in Arkansas, USA. Weed Biology and Management, 14: 50–58.
Ottis B.V., Talbert R.E. (2007): Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli L.) control and rice density effects on rice yield components. Weed Technology, 21: 110–118.
Powles S.B., Yu Q. (2010): Evolution in action: plants resistant to herbicides. Annual Review of Plant Biology, 61: 317–347.
Peterson M.A., Collavo A., Ovejero R., Shivrain V., Walsh M.J. (2018): The challenge of herbicide resistance around the world: a current summary. Pest Management Science, 74: 2246–2259.
R Development Core Team (2013): R: a Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna, R Foundation for Statistical Computing.
Riar D.S., Norsworthy J.K., Bond J.A., Bararpour M.T., Wilson M.J., Scott R.C. (2012): Resistance of Echinochloa crus-galli populations to acetolactate synthase-inhibiting herbicides. International Journal of Agronomy, 2012: 893953.
Song J.-S., Lim S.-H., Yook M.-J., Kim J.-W., Kim D.-S. (2017): Cross-resistance of Echinochloa species to acetolactate synthase inhibitor herbicides. Weed Biology and Management, 17: 91–102.
Stephenson G.R., Dykstra M.D., McLaren R.D., Hamill A.S. (1990): Agronomic practices influencing triazine-resistant weed distribution in Ontario. Weed Technology, 4: 199–207.
Tursun N. (2012): Research on determination of resistance of Kısır Yabani Yulaf (Avena sterilis L.) found in wheat cultivation fields against fenoxaprop-p-ethyl effective herbicides by rapid testing method. Agricultural Science Research Journal, 5: 161–166.
Ulloa S.M., Datta A., Bruening C., Neilson B., Miller J., Gogos G., Knezevic S.Z. (2011): Maize response to broadcast flaming at different growth stages: effects on growth, yield and yield components. European Journal of Agronomy, 34: 10–19.
Wilson M.J., Norsworthy J.K., Scott R.C., Gbur E.E. (2014): Program approaches to control herbicide-resistant barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) in Midsouthern United States rice. Weed Technology, 28: 39–46.
Yang X., Yu X.Y., Li Y.F. (2013): De novo assembly and characterization of the barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) transcriptome using next-generation pyrosequencing. Plos One, 8: e69168.
download PDF

© 2022 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Prohlášení o přístupnosti