Effect of various biochar rates on winter rye yield and the concentration of available nutrients in the soil  

https://doi.org/10.17221/94/2016-PSECitation:Kraska P., Oleszczuk P., Andruszczak S., Kwiecińska-Poppe E., Różyło K., Pałys E., Gierasimiuk P., Michałojć Z. (2016): Effect of various biochar rates on winter rye yield and the concentration of available nutrients in the soil  . Plant Soil Environ., 62: 483-489.
download PDF
From 2012 to 2014 a field experiment was conducted on a podzolic soil. The aim of the study was to evaluate the yield and weed infestation of winter rye canopy depending on three biochar rates (10, 20 and 30 t/ha). The biochar was pyrolyzed from wheat straw at 350–650°C. After 12, 24, and 36 months from biochar incorporation into the soil pH, total carbon (C) and some elements in soil were determined. Additionally phytotoxicity of soil solid phase was assessed by the commercial toxicity bioassay – Phytotoxkit. The addition of biochar had a positive influence on grain yield of winter rye, which was related to the nutrient application in the form of biochar. The highest grain yields were obtained when biochar was applied at the rate of 20 t/ha. The air-dry weight of weeds in the rye crop grown in the biochar-amended plots was lower compared to the control plots. Incorporation of biochar into the soil at the rates of 20 and 30 t/ha caused a significant increase in the soil content of total C as well as of available P, K, Mg, Fe and B, relative to the control treatment. Moreover, the biochar-amended soil had higher pH because of the relatively high concentration in the biochar (pHKCl 9.9). The assessment of substrate toxicity revealed that biochar applied at the rates of 10 and 20 t/ha had no negative effects on the germination of Lepidium sativum L.  
gorji m., Gorji M., Asadi H., GH Bagheri-Marandi, AA Pourbabaee (): Effects of rice husk biochar application on the properties of alkaline soil and lentil growth. Plant, Soil and Environment, 61, 475-482  https://doi.org/10.17221/117/2015-PSE
Blackwell Paul, Krull Evelyn, Butler Greg, Herbert Allan, Solaiman Zakaria (2010): Effect of banded biochar on dryland wheat production and fertiliser use in south-western Australia: an agronomic and economic perspective. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 48, 531-  https://doi.org/10.1071/SR10014
Brendova Katerina, Tlustoš P., Száková J. (): Biochar immobilizes cadmium and zinc and improves phytoextraction potential of willow plants on extremely contaminated soil. Plant, Soil and Environment, 61, 303-308  https://doi.org/10.17221/181/2015-PSE
Chan K. Y., Van Zwieten L., Meszaros I., Downie A., Joseph S. (2008): Using poultry litter biochars as soil amendments. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 46, 437-  https://doi.org/10.1071/SR08036
Curaqueo G, Meier S, Khan N, Cea M, Navia R (2014): Use of biochar on two volcanic soils: effects on soil properties and barley yield. Journal of soil science and plant nutrition, , 0-0  https://doi.org/10.4067/S0718-95162014005000072
Farrell Mark, Macdonald Lynne M., Butler Greg, Chirino-Valle Ivan, Condron Leo M. (2014): Biochar and fertiliser applications influence phosphorus fractionation and wheat yield. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 50, 169-178  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374-013-0845-z
Gul Shamim, Whalen Joann K., Thomas Ben W., Sachdeva Vanita, Deng Hongyuan (2015): Physico-chemical properties and microbial responses in biochar-amended soils: Mechanisms and future directions. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 206, 46-59  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2015.03.015
Heitkötter Julian, Marschner Bernd (2015): Interactive effects of biochar ageing in soils related to feedstock, pyrolysis temperature, and historic charcoal production. Geoderma, 245-246, 56-64  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2015.01.012
Houben David, Evrard Laurent, Sonnet Philippe (2013): Mobility, bioavailability and pH-dependent leaching of cadmium, zinc and lead in a contaminated soil amended with biochar. Chemosphere, 92, 1450-1457  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.03.055
Hu H.N., Brown P.H. (1997): Absorption of boron by plant roots. Plant and Soil, 193: 49–58. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1004255707413
Jiang Jun, Xu Ren-kou (2013): Application of crop straw derived biochars to Cu(II) contaminated Ultisol: Evaluating role of alkali and organic functional groups in Cu(II) immobilization. Bioresource Technology, 133, 537-545  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2013.01.161
Karer J., Zehetner F., Kloss S., Wimmer B., Soja G. (2013): Biochar application to temperate soils: Effects on nutrient uptake and crop yield under field conditions. Agricultural and Food Science, 22: 390–403.
Kloss Stefanie, Zehetner Franz, Buecker Jannis, Oburger Eva, Wenzel Walter W., Enders Akio, Lehmann Johannes, Soja Gerhard (2015): Trace element biogeochemistry in the soil-water-plant system of a temperate agricultural soil amended with different biochars. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22, 4513-4526  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-3685-y
Kloss Stefanie, Zehetner Franz, Wimmer Bernhard, Buecker Jannis, Rempt Franziska, Soja Gerhard (2014): Biochar application to temperate soils: Effects on soil fertility and crop growth under greenhouse conditions. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 177, 3-15  https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.201200282
Kuśmierz Marcin, Oleszczuk Patryk, Kraska Piotr, Pałys Edward, Andruszczak Sylwia (2016): Persistence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in biochar-amended soil. Chemosphere, 146, 272-279  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.12.010
Lehmann Johannes (2007): Bio-energy in the black. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 5, 381-387  https://doi.org/10.1890/1540-9295(2007)5[381:BITB]2.0.CO;2
Lehmann J., Joseph S. (2009): Biochar for Environmental Management: Science and Technology. London, Sterling, VA: Earthscan.
Lehmann Johannes, Rillig Matthias C., Thies Janice, Masiello Caroline A., Hockaday William C., Crowley David (2011): Biochar effects on soil biota – A review. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 43, 1812-1836  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2011.04.022
Oleszczuk Patryk, Jośko Izabela, Futa Barbara, Pasieczna-Patkowska Sylwia, Pałys Edward, Kraska Piotr (2014): Effect of pesticides on microorganisms, enzymatic activity and plant in biochar-amended soil. Geoderma, 214-215, 10-18  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2013.10.010
Oleszczuk Patryk, Jośko Izabela, Kuśmierz Marcin (2013): Biochar properties regarding to contaminants content and ecotoxicological assessment. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 260, 375-382  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.05.044
Phytotoxkit™ (2004): Seed Germination and Early Growth Microbiotest with Higher Plants, Standard Operation Procedure. Gent, MicroBioTests Inc.
Prendergast-Miller M. T., Duvall M., Sohi S. P. (2014): Biochar-root interactions are mediated by biochar nutrient content and impacts on soil nutrient availability. European Journal of Soil Science, 65, 173-185  https://doi.org/10.1111/ejss.12079
Qayyum M.F., Steffens D., Reisenauer H.P., Schubert S. (2014): Biochars influence differential distribution and chemical composition of soil organic matter. Plant, Soil and Environment, 60: 337–343.
Quilliam Richard S., Marsden Karina A., Gertler Christoph, Rousk Johannes, DeLuca Thomas H., Jones Davey L. (2012): Nutrient dynamics, microbial growth and weed emergence in biochar amended soil are influenced by time since application and reapplication rate. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 158, 192-199  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2012.06.011
Rees Frédéric, Sterckeman Thibault, Morel Jean Louis (2016): Root development of non-accumulating and hyperaccumulating plants in metal-contaminated soils amended with biochar. Chemosphere, 142, 48-55  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2015.03.068
Schulz Hardy, Dunst Gerald, Glaser Bruno (2013): Positive effects of composted biochar on plant growth and soil fertility. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 33, 817-827  https://doi.org/10.1007/s13593-013-0150-0
Van Reeuwijk L.P. (1992): Procedures for Soil Analysis. Wageningen, International Soil Reference and Information Centre.
Yanai Yosuke, Toyota Koki, Okazaki Masanori (2007): Effects of charcoal addition on N 2 O emissions from soil resulting from rewetting air-dried soil in short-term laboratory experiments. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition, 53, 181-188  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-0765.2007.00123.x
download PDF

© 2020 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences