The overview of existing knowledge on medical cannabis plants growing

https://doi.org/10.17221/96/2021-PSECitation:

Malík M., Velechovský J., Tlustoš P. (2021): The overview of existing knowledge on medical cannabis plants growing. Plant Soil Environ., 67: 425–442.

download PDF

The use of cannabis for medicinal purposes dates back well before the era of modern medicine, but in recent years research into the use of medical cannabis in the medical and pharmaceutical sciences has grown significantly. In European countries, most cannabis plants have been and still are grown for industrial purposes. For this reason, hemp cultivation technology is relatively well researched, while little is known about the key factors affecting cannabis cultivation for medical purposes. The active substances of cannabis plant targeted by this review are called phytocannabinoids. The biosynthesis of phytocannabinoids is relatively well understood, but the specific environmental factors that influence the type and number of phytocannabinoids have been much less studied. Indoor or greenhouse cultivation, which uses automated lighting, ventilation, irrigation systems and complex plant nutrition has become much more sophisticated and appears to be the most effective method for producing medical cannabis. There are many different cultivation systems for cannabis plants, but one of the essential elements of the process is an optimal plant nutrition and selection of fertilisers to achieve it. This review summarises the existing knowledge about phytocannabinoid biosynthesis and the conditions suitable for growing plants as sources of medical cannabis. This review also attempts to delineate how nutrient type and bioavailability influences the synthesis and accumulation of specific phytocannabinoids based on contemporary knowledge of the topic.

 

References:
Amaducci S., Scordia D., Liu F., Zhang Q., Guo H., Testa G., Cosentino S. (2015): Key cultivation techniques for hemp in Europe and China. Industrial Crops and Products, 68: 2–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2014.06.041
 
Aubin M.-P., Seguin P., Vanasse A., Tremblay G.F., Mustafa A.F., Charron J.-B. (2015): Industrial hemp response to nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium fertilization. Crop, Forage and Turfgrass Management, 1: 1–10. https://doi.org/10.2134/cftm2015.0159
 
Babson K.A., Sottile J., Morabito D. (2017): Cannabis, cannabinoids, and sleep: a review of the literature. Current Psychiatry Reports, 19: 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-017-0775-9
 
Balneaves L.G., Alraja A.A. (2019): "Guarding their practice": a descriptive study of Canadian nursing policies and education related to medical cannabis. BMC Nursing, 18: 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12912-019-0390-7
 
Barker A.V., Pilbeam D.J. (2015): Handbook of Plant Nutrition. Boca Raton, CRC Press. ISBN 9781032098630
 
Bazzaz F., Dusek D., Seigler D., Haney A. (1975): Photosynthesis and cannabinoid content of temperate and tropical populations of Cannabis sativa. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 3: 15–18. https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-1978(75)90036-8
 
Bernstein N., Gorelick J., Koch S. (2019a): Interplay between chemistry and morphology in medical cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.). Industrial Crops and Products, 129: 185–194.
 
Bernstein N., Gorelick J., Zerahia R., Koch S. (2019b): Impact of N, P, K and humic acids supplementation on the chemical profile of medical cannabis (Cannabis sativa L). Frontiers in Plant Science, 10: 736.
 
Bessho M., Shimizu K. (2012): Latest trends in LED lighting. Electronics and Communications in Japan, 95: 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1002/ecj.10394
 
Beutler J.A., Marderosian A.H. (1978): Chemotaxonomy of Cannabis I. Crossbreeding between Cannabis sativa and C. ruderalis, with analysis of cannabinoid content. Economic Botany, 32: 387–394. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02907934
 
Bócsa I., Máthé P., Hangyel L. (1997): Effect of nitrogen on tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) content in hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) leaves at different positions. Journal of the International Hemp Association, 4: 78–79.
 
Bonn-Miller M.O., Babson K.A., Vandrey R. (2014): Using cannabis to help you sleep: heightened frequency of medical cannabis use among those with PTSD. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 136: 162–165. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2013.12.008
 
Boon E.M., Downs A., Marcey D. (2007): Catalase: H2O2 : H2O2 Oxidoreductase. Catalase Structural Tutorial Text, 2007–2002.
 
Brickell C., Alexander C., David J., Hetterscheid W., Leslie A., Malécot V., Xiaobai J. (2009): International Code of Nomenclature for Cultivated Plants. Leuven, International Society for Horticultural Science.
 
Caplan D., Dixon M., Zheng Y. (2017a): Optimal rate of organic fertilizer during the flowering stage for cannabis grown in two coir-based substrates. HortScience, 52: 1796–1803.
 
Caplan D., Dixon M., Zheng Y. (2017b): Optimal rate of organic fertilizer during the vegetative-stage for cannabis grown in two coir-based substrates. HortScience, 52: 1307–1312.
 
Carpentier C., Mulligan K., Laniel L., Potter D., Hughes B., Vandam L., Skarupova K. (2012): Cannabis Production and Markets in Europe. Lisbon, Publications Office of the European Union. ISBN 978-92-9168-502-8
 
Coffman C., Gentner W. (1975): Cannabinoid profile and elemental uptake of Cannabis sativa L. as influenced by soil characteristics. Agronomy Journal, 67: 491–497. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1975.00021962006700040010x
 
Coffman C., Gentner W. (1977): Responses of greenhouse-grown Cannabis sativa L. to nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium. Agronomy Journal, 69: 832–836. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1977.00021962006900050026x
 
Conant R., Walsh R., Walsh M., Bell C., Wallenstein M. (2017): Effects of a microbial biostimulant, Mammoth PTM, on Cannabis sativa bud yield. Journal of Horticulture, 4: 1000191. https://doi.org/10.4172/2376-0354.1000191
 
Corey-Bloom J., Wolfson T., Gamst A., Jin S., Marcotte T.D., Bentley H., Gouaux B. (2012): Smoked cannabis for spasticity in multiple sclerosis: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 184: 1143–1150. https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.110837
 
Croteau R. (1987): Biosynthesis and catabolism of monoterpenoids. Chemical Reviews, 87: 929–954. https://doi.org/10.1021/cr00081a004
 
Da Cunha Leme Filho J.F., Thomason W.E., Evanylo G.K., Zhang X., Strickland M.S., Chim B.K., Diatta A.A. (2020): Biochemical and physiological responses of Cannabis sativa to an integrated plant nutrition system. Agronomy Journal, 112: 5237–5248. https://doi.org/10.1002/agj2.20400
 
De Backer B., Maebe K., Verstraete A.G., Charlier C. (2012): Evolution of the content of THC and other major cannabinoids in drug-type cannabis cuttings and seedlings during growth of plants. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 57: 918–922. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1556-4029.2012.02068.x
 
De Lamarck J.-B.D.M. (1786): Methodical Encyclopedia: Botany. Paris, Panckoucke. (In French)
 
Devane W.A., Hanus L., Breuer A., Pertwee R.G., Stevenson L.A., Griffin G., Gibson D., Mandelbaum A., Etinger A., Mechoulam R. (1992): Isolation and structure of a brain constituent that binds to the cannabinoid receptor. Science, 258: 1946–1949. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1470919
 
Dewick P.M. (2002): Medicinal Natural Products: A Biosynthetic Approach. Chichester, John Wiley and Sons. ISBN: 978-0-470-74168-9
 
Doyle E., Spence A. (1995): Cannabis as a medicine? British Journal of Anaesthesia, 74: 359–361.
 
Drugs U.N.O.O. (2009): Recommended Methods for the Identification and Analysis of Cannabis and Cannabis Products: Manual for Use by National Drug Testing Laboratories. Vienna, United Nations Publications. ISBN: 9789210555890
 
Du Jardin P. (2015): Plant biostimulants: definition, concept, main categories and regulation. Scientia Horticulturae, 196: 3–14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2015.09.021
 
Duran M., Pérez E., Abanades S., Vidal X., Saura C., Majem M., Arriola E., Rabanal M., Pastor A., Farré M. (2010): Preliminary efficacy and safety of an oromucosal standardized cannabis extract in chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 70: 656–663. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2010.03743.x
 
Elsohly M.A., Slade D. (2005): Chemical constituents of marijuana: the complex mixture of natural cannabinoids. Life Sciences, 78: 539–548. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2005.09.011
 
Elzinga S., Fischedick J., Podkolinski R., Raber J. (2015): Cannabinoids and terpenes as chemotaxonomic markers in cannabis. Natural Products Chemistry and Research, 3: 181.
 
Evans J., Jakobsen I., Ögren E. (1993): Photosynthetic light-response curves. Planta, 189: 191–200. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00195076
 
Farag S., Kayser O. (2015): Cultivation and breeding of Cannabis sativa L. for preparation of standardized extracts for medicinal purposes. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of the World. Medicinal and Aromatic Plants of the World, 165–186.
 
Fellermeier M., Zenk M.H. (1998): Prenylation of olivetolate by
 
a hemp transferase yields cannabigerolic acid, the precursor of tetrahydrocannabinol. FEBS Letters, 427: 283–285.
 
Fischedick J.T., Hazekamp A., Erkelens T., Choi Y.H., Verpoorte R. (2010): Metabolic fingerprinting of Cannabis sativa L., cannabinoids and terpenoids for chemotaxonomic and drug standardization purposes. Phytochemistry, 71: 2058–2073. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2010.10.001
 
Flores-Sanchez I.J., Verpoorte R. (2008): PKS activities and biosynthesis of cannabinoids and flavonoids in Cannabis sativa L. plants. Plant and Cell Physiology, 49: 1767–1782. https://doi.org/10.1093/pcp/pcn150
 
Gagne S.J., Stout J.M., Liu E., Boubakir Z., Clark S.M., Page J.E. (2012): Identification of olivetolic acid cyclase from Cannabis sativa reveals a unique catalytic route to plant polyketides. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109: 12811–12816. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1200330109
 
Gaoni Y., Mechoulam R. (1964): Isolation, structure, and partial synthesis of an active constituent of hashish. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 86: 1646–1647. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja01062a046
 
Giuffrida A., Beltramo M., Piomelli D. (2001): Mechanisms of endocannabinoid inactivation: biochemistry and pharmacology. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 298: 7–14.
 
Grotenhermen F., Muller-Vahl K. (2012): The therapeutic potential of cannabis and cannabinoids. Deutsches Aerzteblatt International, 109: 495–501. https://doi.org/10.3238/arztebl.2012.0495
 
Halliday K.J., Fankhauser C. (2003): Phytochrome-hormonal signalling networks. New Phytologist, 157: 449–463. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1469-8137.2003.00689.x
 
Hamilton E.W., Heckathorn S.A., Joshi P., Wang D., Barua D. (2008): Interactive effects of elevated CO2 and growth temperature on the tolerance of photosynthesis to acute heat stress in C3 and C4 species. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, 50: 1375–1387. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7909.2008.00747.x
 
Haney A., Kutscheid B.B. (1973): Quantitative variation in the chemical constituents of marihuana from stands of naturalized Cannabis sativa L. in East-Central Illinois. Economic Botany, 27: 193–203. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02872989
 
Hanuš L., Dostálová M. (1994): The effect of soil fertilization on the formation and the amount of cannabinoid substances in Cannabis sativa L. in the course of one vegetation period. Acta Universitatis Palackianae Olomucensis Facultatis Medicae, 138: 11–15.
 
Hanuš L.O., Meyer S.M., Muñoz E., Taglialatela-Scafati O., Appendino G. (2016): Phytocannabinoids: a unified critical inventory. Natural Product Reports, 33: 1357–1392. https://doi.org/10.1039/C6NP00074F
 
Hartsel J.A., Eades J., Hickory B., Makriyannis A. (2016): Cannabis sativa and Hemp. Nutraceuticals. Elsevier, 735–754.
 
Hemphill J.K., Turner J.C., Mahlberg P.G. (1980): Cannabinoid content of individual plant organs from different geographical strains of Cannabis sativa L. Journal of Natural Products, 43: 112–122. https://doi.org/10.1021/np50007a009
 
Hillig K.W. (2004): A chemotaxonomic analysis of terpenoid variation in Cannabis. Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, 32: 875–891. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bse.2004.04.004
 
Hillig K.W. (2005): Genetic evidence for speciation in Cannabis (Cannabaceae). Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 52: 161–180. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-003-4452-y
 
Hillig K.W., Mahlberg P.G. (2004): A chemotaxonomic analysis of cannabinoid variation in Cannabis (Cannabaceae). American Journal of Botany, 91: 966–975. https://doi.org/10.3732/ajb.91.6.966
 
Chandra S., Lata H., Khan I.A., Elsohly M.A. (2008): Photosynthetic response of Cannabis sativa L. to variations in photosynthetic photon flux densities, temperature and CO2 conditions. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants, 14: 299–306. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12298-008-0027-x
 
Chandra S., Lata H., Khan I.A., Elsohly M.A. (2011): Photosynthetic response of Cannabis sativa L., an important medicinal plant, to elevated levels of CO2. Physiology and Molecular Biology of Plants, 17: 291–295. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12298-011-0066-6
 
Janischevsky D. (1924): A form of hemp in wild areas of southeastern Russia. NG Černyševskogo Universiteta, 2: 3–17.
 
Järvinen T., Pate D.W., Laine K. (2002): Cannabinoids in the treatment of glaucoma. Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 95: 203–220. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0163-7258(02)00259-0
 
Jiang H.-E., Li X., Zhao Y.-X., Ferguson D.K., Hueber F., Bera S., Wang Y.-F., Zhao L.-C., Liu C.-J., Li C.-S. (2006): A new insight into Cannabis sativa (Cannabaceae) utilization from 2 500-year-old Yanghai Tombs, Xinjiang, China. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 108: 414–422. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2006.05.034
 
Kimball B.A. (1983): Carbon dioxide and agricultural yield: an assemblage and analysis of 430 prior observations 1. Agronomy Journal, 75: 779–788. https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1983.00021962007500050014x
 
Kimura M., Okamoto K. (1970): Distribution of tetrahydrocannabinolic acid in fresh wild cannabis. Experientia, 26: 819–820. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02114192
 
Kriese U., Schumann E., Weber W., Beyer M., Brühl L. (2004): Oil content, tocopherol composition and fatty acid patterns of the seeds of 51 Cannabis sativa L. genotypes. Euphytica, 137: 339–351. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:EUPH.0000040473.23941.76
 
Lane M., Vogel C.L., Ferguson J., Krasnow S., Saiers J.L., Hamm J., Salva K., Wiernik P.H., Holroyde C.P., Hammill S. (1991): Dronabinol and prochlorperazine in combination for treatment of cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management, 6: 352–359. https://doi.org/10.1016/0885-3924(91)90026-Z
 
Leggett T. (2006): A review of the world cannabis situation. Bulletin on Narcotics, 58: 1–155.
 
Linnaeus C. (1753): Species Plantarum. Laurentius Salvius, Sweden.
 
Lotan I., Treves T.A., Roditi Y., Djaldetti R. (2014): Cannabis (medical marijuana) treatment for motor and non-motor symptoms of Parkinson disease: an open-label observational study. Clinical Neuropharmacology, 37: 41–44. https://doi.org/10.1097/WNF.0000000000000016
 
Lydon J., Teramura A.H., Coffman C.B. (1987): UV-B radiation effects on photosynthesis, growth and cannabinoid production of two Cannabis sativa chemotypes. Photochemistry and Photobiology, 46: 201–206. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-1097.1987.tb04757.x
 
Lynch M.E., Campbell F. (2011): Cannabinoids for treatment of chronic non-cancer pain; a systematic review of randomized trials. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 72: 735–744. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2125.2011.03970.x
 
Lyu D., Backer R., Robinson W.G., Smith D.L. (2019): Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria for cannabis production: yield, cannabinoid profile and disease resistance. Frontiers in Microbiology, 10: 1761. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2019.01761
 
Magagnini G., Grassi G., Kotiranta S. (2018): The effect of light spectrum on the morphology and cannabinoid content of Cannabis sativa L. Medical Cannabis and Cannabinoids, 1: 19–27. https://doi.org/10.1159/000489030
 
Mahlberg P.G., Hemphill J.K. (1983): Effect of light quality on cannabinoid content of Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae). Botanical Gazette, 144: 43–48. https://doi.org/10.1086/337342
 
Massa G.D., Kim H.-H., Wheeler R.M., Mitchell C.A. (2008): Plant productivity in response to LED lighting. HortScience, 43: 1951–1956. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.43.7.1951
 
McNeill J., Barrie F., Buck W., Demoulin V., Greuter W., Hawksworth D., Herendeen P., Knapp S., Marhold K., Prado J. (2012): International Code of Nomenclature for Algae, Fungi and Plants (Melbourne Code). Koeltz Scientific Books Königstein.
 
McPartland J.M. (2018): Cannabis systematics at the levels of family, genus, and species. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research, 3: 203–212. https://doi.org/10.1089/can.2018.0039
 
Mechoulam R., Ben-Shabat S., Hanus L., Ligumsky M., Kaminski N.E., Schatz A.R., Gopher A., Almog S., Martin B.R., Compton D.R., Pertwee R.G., Griffin G., Bayewitch M., Barg J., Vogel Z. (1995): Identification of an endogenous 2-monoglyceride, present in canine gut, that binds to cannabinoid receptors. Biochemical Pharmacology, 50: 83–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/0006-2952(95)00109-D
 
Mechoulam R., Braun P., Gaoni Y. (1967): A stereospecific synthesis of (-)-delta 1- and (-)-delta 1(6)-tetrahydrocannabinols. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 89: 4552–4554. https://doi.org/10.1021/ja00993a072
 
Mechoulam R., Gaoni Y. (1967): The absolute configuration of delta-1-tetrahydrocannabinol, the major active constituent of hashish. Tetrahedron Letters, 12: 1109–1111. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0040-4039(00)90646-4
 
Milay L., Berman P., Shapira A., Guberman O., Meiri D. (2020): Metabolic profiling of cannabis secondary metabolites for evaluation of optimal postharvest storage conditions. Frontiers in Plant Science, 11: 583605. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2020.583605
 
Minorsky P.V. (2002): Global Warming – Effects on Plants. Plant Physiology, 129: 1421–1422. https://doi.org/10.1104/pp.900042
 
Mölleken H., Theimer R.R. (1997): Survey of minor fatty acids in Cannabis sativa L. fruits of various origins. Journal of the International Hemp Association, 4: 13–18.
 
Morimoto S., Komatsu K., Taura F., Shoyama Y. (1997): Enzymological evidence for cannabichromenic acid biosynthesis. Journal of Natural Products, 60: 854–857. https://doi.org/10.1021/np970210y
 
Morimoto S., Komatsu K., Taura F., Shoyama Y. (1998): Purification and characterization of cannabichromenic acid synthase from Cannabis sativa. Phytochemistry, 49: 1525–1529. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(98)00278-7
 
Namdar D., Charuvi D., Ajjampura V., Mazuz M., Ion A., Kamara I., Koltai H. (2019): LED lighting affects the composition and biological activity of Cannabis sativa secondary metabolites. Industrial Crops and Products, 132: 177–185. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.indcrop.2019.02.016
 
Ögren E., Evans J. (1993): Photosynthetic light-response curves. Planta, 189: 182–190. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00195075
 
Pate D.W. (1994): Chemical ecology of Cannabis. Journal of the International Hemp Association, 2: 32–37.
 
Patel S., Cudney R., McPherson A. (1994): Crystallographic characterization and molecular symmetry of edestin, a legumin from hemp. Journal of Molecular Biology, 235: 361–363. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-2836(05)80040-3
 
Pickering K.L., Beckermann G., Alam S., Foreman N.J. (2007): Optimising industrial hemp fibre for composites. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing, 38: 461–468. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesa.2006.02.020
 
Pooyania S., Ethans K., Szturm T., Casey A., Perry D. (2010): A randomized, double-blinded, crossover pilot study assessing the effect of nabilone on spasticity in persons with spinal cord injury. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 91: 703–707. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apmr.2009.12.025
 
Portenoy R.K., Ganae-Motan E.D., Allende S., Yanagihara R., Shaiova L., Weinstein S., McQuade R., Wright S., Fallon M.T. (2012): Nabiximols for opioid-treated cancer patients with poorly-controlled chronic pain: a randomized, placebo-controlled, graded-dose trial. The Journal of Pain, 13: 438–449. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2012.01.003
 
Potter D.J. (2014): A review of the cultivation and processing of cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) for production of prescription medicines in the UK. Drug Testing and Analysis, 6: 31–38. https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.1531
 
Potter D.J., Duncombe P. (2012): The effect of electrical lighting power and irradiance on indoor-grown cannabis potency and yield. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 57: 618–622. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1556-4029.2011.02024.x
 
Quan L.J., Zhang B., Shi W.W., Li H.Y. (2008): Hydrogen peroxide in plants: a versatile molecule of the reactive oxygen species network. Journal of Integrative Plant Biology, 50: 2–18. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-7909.2007.00599.x
 
Radosavljevic-Stevanovic N., Markovic J., Agatonovic-Kustrin S., Razic S. (2014): Metals and organic compounds in the biosynthesis of cannabinoids: a chemometric approach to the analysis of Cannabis sativa samples. Natural Product Research, 28: 511–516. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2014.880912
 
Ravikoff Allegretti J., Courtwright A., Lucci M., Korzenik J.R., Levine J. (2013): Marijuana use patterns among patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, 19: 2809–2814. https://doi.org/10.1097/01.MIB.0000435851.94391.37
 
Razdan R.K. (1986): Structure-activity relationships in cannabinoids. Pharmacological Reviews, 38: 75–149.
 
Ross S., Elsohly M. (1995): Constituents of Cannabis sativa L. XXVIII – A review of the natural constituents: 1980–1994. Zagazig Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4: 1–10. https://doi.org/10.21608/zjps.1995.169714
 
Russo E.B., Guy G.W., Robson P.J. (2007): Cannabis, pain, and sleep: lessons from therapeutic clinical trials of Sativex®, a cannabis-based medicine. Chemistry and Biodiversity, 4: 1729–1743. https://doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.200790150
 
Saloner A., Sacks M.M., Bernstein N. (2019): Response of medical cannabis (Cannabis sativa L.) genotypes to K supply under long photoperiod. Frontiers in Plant Science, 10: 1369. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2019.01369
 
Selvarajah D., Gandhi R., Emery C.J., Tesfaye S. (2010): Randomized placebo-controlled double-blind clinical trial of cannabis-based medicinal product (Sativex) in painful diabetic neuropathy: depression is a major confounding factor. Diabetes Care, 33: 128–130. https://doi.org/10.2337/dc09-1029
 
Shelef A., Mashiah M., Schumacher I., Shine O., Baruch Y. (2011): Medical grade cannabis (MGC): regulation mechanisms, the present situation around the world and in Israel. Harefuah, 150: 913–917, 935, 934.
 
Shoyama Y., Hirano H., Nishioka I. (1984): Biosynthesis of propyl cannabinoid acid and its biosynthetic relationship with pentyl and methyl cannabinoid acids. Phytochemistry, 23: 1909–1912. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)84939-0
 
Shoyama Y., Tamada T., Kurihara K., Takeuchi A., Taura F., Arai S., Blaber M., Shoyama Y., Morimoto S., Kuroki R. (2012): Structure and function of ∆1-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA) synthase, the enzyme controlling the psychoactivity of Cannabis sativa. Journal of Molecular Biology, 423: 96–105. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2012.06.030
 
Shoyama Y., Yamauchi T., Nishioka I. (1970): Cannabis. V. Cannabigerolic acid monomethyl ether and cannabinolic acid. Chemical and Pharmaceutical Bulletin, 18: 1327–1332. https://doi.org/10.1248/cpb.18.1327
 
Small E. (2015): Evolution and classification of Cannabis sativa (marijuana, hemp) in relation to human utilization. The Botanical Review, 81: 189–294. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12229-015-9157-3
 
Small E., Cronquist A. (1976): A practical and natural taxonomy for Cannabis. Taxon, 25: 405–435. https://doi.org/10.2307/1220524
 
Surrage V.A., Lafreniere C., Dixon M., Zheng Y. (2010): Benefits of vermicompost as a constituent of growing substrates used in the production of organic greenhouse tomatoes. HortScience, 45: 1510–1515. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.45.10.1510
 
Sweet S.L. (2016): The energy intensity of lighting used for the production of recreational cannabis in Washington State and implications for energy efficiency. Olympia, Evergreen State College.
 
Taura F. (2009): Studies on tetrahydrocannabinolic acid synthase that produces the acidic precursor of tetrahydrocannabinol, the pharmacologically active cannabinoid in marijuana. Drug Discoveries and Therapeutics, 3: 83–87.
 
Taura F., Morimoto S., Shoyama Y. (1995a): Cannabinerolic acid,
 
a cannabinoid from Cannabis sativa. Phytochemistry, 39: 457–458.
 
Taura F., Morimoto S., Shoyama Y. (1996): Purification and characterization of cannabidiolic-acid synthase from Cannabis sativa L. Biochemical analysis of a novel enzyme that catalyzes the oxidocyclization of cannabigerolic acid to cannabidiolic acid. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 271: 17411–17416. https://doi.org/10.1074/jbc.271.29.17411
 
Taura F., Morimoto S., Shoyama Y., Mechoulam R. (1995b): First direct evidence for the mechanism of. DELTA. 1-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid biosynthesis. Journal of the American Chemical Society, 117: 9766–9767.
 
Taura F., Sirikantaramas S., Shoyama Y., Shoyama Y., Morimoto S. (2007a): Phytocannabinoids in Cannabis sativa: recent studies on biosynthetic enzymes. Chemistry and Biodiversity, 4: 1649–1663.
 
Taura F., Sirikantaramas S., Shoyama Y., Yoshikai K., Shoyama Y., Morimoto S. (2007b): Cannabidiolic-acid synthase, the chemotype-determining enzyme in the fiber-type Cannabis sativa. FEBS letters, 581: 2929–2934.
 
Taura F., Tanaka S., Taguchi C., Fukamizu T., Tanaka H., Shoyama Y., Morimoto S. (2009): Characterization of olivetol synthase, a polyketide synthase putatively involved in cannabinoid biosynthetic pathway. FEBS Letters, 583: 2061–2066. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2009.05.024
 
Toonen M., Ribot S., Thissen J. (2006): Yield of illicit indoor cannabis cultivation in the Netherlands. Journal of Forensic Sciences, 51: 1050–1054. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1556-4029.2006.00228.x
 
Troutt W.D., Didonato M.D. (2015): Medical cannabis in Arizona: patient characteristics, perceptions, and impressions of medical cannabis legalization. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, 47: 259–266. https://doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2015.1074766
 
Turner C.E., Elsohly M.A., Boeren E.G. (1980): Constituents of Cannabis sativa L. XVII. A review of the natural constituents. Journal of Natural Products, 43: 169–234. https://doi.org/10.1021/np50008a001
 
Van Bakel H., Stout J.M., Cote A.G., Tallon C.M., Sharpe A.G., Hughes T.R., Page J.E. (2011): The draft genome and transcriptome of Cannabis sativa. Genome Biology, 12: 1–18. https://doi.org/10.1186/gb-2011-12-10-r102
 
Vanhove W., Surmont T., Van Damme P., De Ruyver B. (2012): Yield and turnover of illicit indoor cannabis (Cannabis spp.) plantations in Belgium. Forensic Science International, 220: 265–270. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2012.03.013
 
Vanhove W., Van Damme P., Meert N. (2011): Factors determining yield and quality of illicit indoor cannabis (Cannabis spp.) production. Forensic Science International, 212: 158–163. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forsciint.2011.06.006
 
Velazquez L., Hernandez M., Leon M., Domínguez R.B., Gutierrez J. (2013): First advances on the development of a hydroponic system for cherry tomato culture. 10th International Conference on Electrical Engineering, Computing Science and Automatic Control (CCE). IEEE.
 
Vera C., Malhi S., Raney J., Wang Z. (2004): The effect of N and P fertilization on growth, seed yield and quality of industrial hemp in the Parkland region of Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 84: 939–947. https://doi.org/10.4141/P04-022
 
Vlasits J., Jakopitsch C., Bernroitner M., Zamocky M., Furtmuller P.G., Obinger C. (2010): Mechanisms of catalase activity of heme peroxidases. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 500: 74–81. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.abb.2010.04.018
 
Wade D.T., Makela P., Robson P., House H., Bateman C. (2004): Do cannabis-based medicinal extracts have general or specific effects on symptoms in multiple sclerosis? A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study on 160 patients. Multiple Sclerosis Journal, 10: 434–441. https://doi.org/10.1191/1352458504ms1082oa
 
Wang D., Heckathorn S.A., Barua D., Joshi P., Hamilton E.W., Lacroix J.J. (2008): Effects of elevated CO2 on the tolerance of photosynthesis to acute heat stress in C3, C4, and CAM species. American Journal of Botany, 95: 165–176. https://doi.org/10.3732/ajb.95.2.165
 
Wheeler T., Batts G., Ellis R., Hadley P., Morison J. (1996): Growth and yield of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) crops in response to CO2 and temperature. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 127: 37–48. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600077352
 
Wilsey B., Marcotte T., Deutsch R., Gouaux B., Sakai S., Donaghe H. (2013): Low-dose vaporized cannabis significantly improves neuropathic pain. The Journal of Pain, 14: 136–148. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpain.2012.10.009
 
Wu A.J., Penner-Hahn J.E., Pecoraro V.L. (2004): Structural, spectroscopic, and reactivity models for the manganese catalases. Chemical Reviews, 104: 903–938. https://doi.org/10.1021/cr020627v
 
Yu Y. (1987): Agricultural history over seven thousand years in China. In: Wittwer S., Yu Y.T., Han S., Wang L.Z. (eds.): Feeding a Billion – Frontiers of Chinese Agriculture. East Lansing, Michigan State University Press, 19–33.
 
Zelitch I. (1975): Improving the efficiency of photosynthesis. Science, 188: 626–633. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.188.4188.626
 
Zhai Z., Ehret D.L., Forge T., Helmer T., Lin W., Dorais M., Papadopoulos A.P. (2009): Organic fertilizers for greenhouse tomatoes: productivity and substrate microbiology. HortScience, 44: 800–809. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.44.3.800
 
Zhang Q., Chen X., Guo H., Trindade L.M., Salentijn E.M., Guo R., Guo M., Xu Y., Yang M. (2018): Latitudinal adaptation and genetic insights into the origins of Cannabis sativa L. Frontiers in Plant Science, 9: 1876. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpls.2018.01876
 
Zlas J., Stark H., Seligman J., Levy R., Werker E., Breuer A., Mechoulam R. (1993): Early medical use of cannabis. Nature, 363: 215–215. https://doi.org/10.1038/363215a0
 
Zuk-Golaszewska K., Golaszewski J. (2018): Cannabis sativa L. – cultivation and quality of raw material. Journal of Elementology, 23: 971–984.
 
download PDF

© 2021 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Prohlášení o přístupnosti