Effect of increasing doses of nitrogen and sulphur on chemical composition of plants, yields and seed quality in winter rape
L. Hřivna, R. Richter, T. Lošák, J. Hlušekhttps://doi.org/10.17221/4197-PSECitation:Hřivna L., Richter R., Lošák T., Hlušek J. (2002): Effect of increasing doses of nitrogen and sulphur on chemical composition of plants, yields and seed quality in winter rape. Plant Soil Environ., 48: 1-6.
In 1999, the effect of increasing levels of nitrogen at the initial (13.9 mg.kg–1) and increased (40 mg.kg–1) level of watersoluble sulphur (Swat) was studied in winter rape (cv. Lirajet) grown in pots. A synergetic effect of nitrogen on concentrations of Ca and Mg was demonstrated in the growth stages DC 20–29 and 31–39. Levels of P and K were balanced. In variants with a low content of Swat in soil to 40 mg.kg–1 of soil S concentration increased. With the increasing dose of N the content of S decreased from 1.00% to 0.78% and from 0.68% to 0.38% in DC 20–29 and DC 31–39, respectively. An increased level of S in soil changed the ratio N/S. In variants with a natural (i.e. low) content of S in soil, this ratio widened with the increasing dose of N from 8.06 to 25.15 while in variants with an increased level of S in soil it ranged from 3.24 to 5.85 in the growth stage DC 20–29. Increasing doses of N widened the ratio N/P regardless to concentration of S in plants. In individual growth stages the ratio P/S was markedly narrowed by changing contents of S in soil. The highest yields were obtained in the variant with an optimum concentration of all elements in plants and S contents above 0.6% and/or about 0.4% in growth stages DC 20–29 and DC 31–39, respectively. The obtained yields demonstrated a highly significant effect of N and S on seed yields. At a low concentration of sulphur in plants the yield of seed increased only to the dose N3(i.e. 0.9 g N per pot); thereafter, it gradually decreased. An increased level of S in soil showed a positive effect on seed yields. Higher doses of N widened the ratio straw/seeds from 2.46 to 7.69; at higher levels of S in soil, an opposite trend was observed. In variants with a low content of S the number of branches and pods increased proportionally with increasing doses of N. On the other hand, increased levels of S reduced the number of branches and pods. At a low level of S in soil the total weight of seeds per pod decreased with the increased supply of N from 69.9 mg to 20.4 mg. At increased levels of S the weight of seeds per pod increased from 61.9 mg to 79.8 mg. Results of field experiments in four different localities corroborated a positive effect of S (in interaction with N) on its concentration in plants. The seed yield was significantly increased. In 2000, results from all localities were markedly influenced by climatic conditions; however average results of all experiments showed that S increased seed yields depending on the dose of N by 2.5 and 5.9%. An optimum nutrition of plants with all elements (including S) results in improved utilisation and increased yields.Keywords:
N and S doses; winter rape; concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S; seed yield; quality