Influence of different organic mineral fertilization on the yield structure and on changes of soil properties
F. Vrkoč, M. Vach, V. Veleta, J. Košnerhttps://doi.org/10.17221/4228-PSECitation:Vrkoč F., Vach M., Veleta V., Košner J. (2002): Influence of different organic mineral fertilization on the yield structure and on changes of soil properties. Plant Soil Environ., 48: 212-216.
The monitoring was carried on in the years 1996–2000 in the international IOSDV (Internationale Ökologische Stickstoff Dauer Versuche) field trial running since 1983 in Lukavec, Pelhřimov district. In the given locality, there are low fertility sandy-loamy cambisoils, long-term average annual rainfall 653 mm, average annual temperature 7°C, altitude 620 m. In the field trials there were introduced different organic fertilizations and graduate N-doses. According to the complex diffusion analysis, statistically significant for the yields of winter wheat after potatoes was the impact of N fertilization, years, and double interactions, with the exception of different organic fertilization. The N doses up to 120 kg.ha–1 after potatoes proved to be optimal from the viewpoint of winter wheat yields and quality. The situation was similar for winter barley. The results of diffusion analysis for individual years were analogical also in straw yields of both cereals. The highest N dose to potatoes (200 kg.ha–1) resulted in the highest tuber yields, but the starch content was significantly lower. Graduated N doses increased in cereals the numbers of ears per m2, but the mass of 1000 grains mostly decreased. In addition, N content in grain and straw increased with N doses, while pH annually decreased by 0.1 to 0.4. On plots without organic fertilization the N-balance was equilibrated with the annual application of 120 kg N.ha–1 with straw embedding after cereals at 90 kg N.ha–1 and on plots with stall dung to potatoes already at 70 kg N.ha–1. On plots without N fertilization, the balance was passive also in P and K on plots without organic fertilization. A balance surplus was obtained already with the annual application of 15 kg P.ha–1 and 83 kg K.ha–1 and organic fertilization. With the annual fertilization with 22 kg P.ha–1 and 83 kg K.ha–1 and stall dung (30 t.ha–1) once every three years the P and K content increased annually by 1 to 3 mg.kg–1 of soil. Maximum levels of crop growing profitability were obtained with those doses of fertilizers with which also an equilibrated balance of nutrients was obtained.Keywords:
winter wheat; winter barley; potatoes; different organic fertilization; graduated N doses; structure and quality of yields; crop and soil analyses