Earliness, spike productivity and protein content in European winter wheat landraces and obsolete cultivars

https://doi.org/10.17221/4092-PSECitation:Dotlačil L., Hermuth J., Stehno Z. (2003): Earliness, spike productivity and protein content in European winter wheat landraces and obsolete cultivars. Plant Soil Environ., 49: 67-74.
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European winter wheat landraces and obsolete cultivars (121 accessions in set I and 101 accessions in set II) with modern check cultivars were evaluated in three-year field trials. Increased spike productivity in modern cultivars could be attributed mainly to increased number of grains in spikelet and increased HI, whereas TGW has marginal effect. Old cultivars had on average by 2–3% higher crude protein content in grain than modern ones. Among selected 10 characters, relatively wide diversity (C.V. 11–20%) has been estimated in spike length and characters of spike productivity (except of grain weight with C.V. close to 9%). It was difficult to distinguish the cultivars according to the country of origin, however, earliness and lower spike productivity seems to be characteristic for South-East origin whereas cultivars from North-West Europe showed opposite characters. Correlation analyses showed close relations between earliness in heading and in maturity and negative relation between late heading and grain filling period, which was positively correlated with TGW and HI (r = 0.26 to 0.38). Number of grains in spikelets was highly correlated with spike productivity and HI (r = 0.62 to 0.69) whereas relations between these two characters and TGW were lower (r = 0.20 to 0.51). Spike productivity characters, except of TGW, are in negative correlation with crude protein content in grain (r = –0.34 to –0.50). Regression analyses confirmed that main determining character for the spike productivity is number of kernels in spikelet (about 40% of variation) while effects of TGW are about half-size. Crude protein content was positively affected by plant height (15–30% of variation) impact of grain weight per spike was lower (14–17% of variation) and negative. Potentially valuable donors of earliness and longer grain filling period were identified for further studies and/or utilization in breeding programs. As especially valuable character can be considered very high crude protein content (around 18% in cvs Berg-land, Ukrajinka, Sippbachzeller, Innichen Nr. 25001 and Barbu du Finistre). High crude protein content combined with relatively good spike productivity and/or long grain filling period or earliness was found in cvs Visperterminen 640 E, Hatvan, Szekacz 1242, Berchtesgardener Vogel, Ble du Lot and Barbu du Finistere.
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