Saccharides of yacon [Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. et Endl.) H. Robinson] tubers and rhizomes and factors affecting their content
J. Lachman, B. Havrland, E.C. Fernández, J. Dudjakhttps://doi.org/10.17221/4048-PSECitation:Lachman J., Havrland B., Fernández E.C., Dudjak J. (2004): Saccharides of yacon [Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. et Endl.) H. Robinson] tubers and rhizomes and factors affecting their content. Plant Soil Environ., 50: 383-390.
Yacon [Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. et Endl.) H. Robinson], a native plant of the Andes, belongs to the family Compositae (Asteraceae). It represents a traditional crop from the original population of Peru. Most of the tuberous root biomass is constituted by water (> 70% of the fresh weight). Saccharides, especially oligofructans, form 70–80% of their dry weight. Four yacon ecotypes originating from Bolivia, Ecuador, Germany and New Zealand were cultivated on the trial fields of the Czech University of Agriculture in Prague in 1995, 1996, 2000 and 2001. Considerable differences among the ecotypes were observed in their content of inulin (141–289 mg/kg d.m.) and lesser for fructose levels (195–217 mg/kg d.m.). No differences were found in glucose and saccharose contents. The highest inulin and fructose contents were found in the harvests from 2001 and 2000, similar trends were found for glucose. Statistically significant effect on the content of all saccharides has the year of cultivation. Tubers contained much higher levels of inulin (179 g/kg d.m.) and fructose (193 g/kg d.m.) in comparison with rhizomes. No significant differences were found for saccharose (higher in rhizomes) and glucose (lower in rhizomes). The contents of inulin and fructose in the upper and lower parts of tubers were reciprocal. During the storage period of 140 days at10°C and 75% a relative humidity inulin content decreased by 48.7% and monosaccharides content increased (fructose by 9.97%, glucose by 31.4%) due to hydrolysis. Likewise saccharose content increased by 12.9%.Keywords:
yacon; saccharides; effect of ecotype; effect of cultivation year; effect of storage; tubers and rhizomes; different parts of the tubers