Performance and gene effects for wheat yield under inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi and Azotobacter chroococcum

https://doi.org/10.17221/4052-PSECitation:Singh R., Behl R.K., Singh K.P., Jain P., Narula N. (2004): Performance and gene effects for wheat yield under inoculation of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi and Azotobacter chroococcum. Plant Soil Environ., 50: 409-415.
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The present investigation was conducted to know the impact of bio-inoculants in low input field conditions on the magnitude and direction of gene effects and mean performance of some morphological and productivity traits in three wheat cultivars WH 147 (medium mineral input), WH 533 (drought tolerant), Raj 3077 (drought tolerant) and six generations namely P1, P2, F1, F2, BC1 and BC2 of three crosses i.e. WH 147 × WH 533, WH 533 × Raj 3077 and WH 147 × Raj 3077. The experiment was conducted in randomised block design with three replications and three treatments i.e. control (C, without inoculation), inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF, Glomus fasciculatum), and AMF + Azotobacter chroococcum (Azc). Mineral fertilizer (80 kg N/ha + 40 kg P/ha + 18 kg ZnSO4/ha) was applied in all the three treatments. The application of bio-inoculants, AMF and AMF + Azc had a positive effect on plant height, peduncle length, grain yield, biological yield and harvest index in various populations of all the crosses. However, in some of the generations the impact of bio-inoculants was insignificant. The joint scaling test revealed that additive-dominance gene effects were mainly operative in governing expression of peduncle length, tillers per plant, plant height, grains/spike, grain yield and all traits except days to flowering and harvest index in crosses WH 147 × WH 533 and WH 533 × Raj 3077. The application of bioinoculants influenced gene effects for days to flowering, days to maturity, flag leaf area, spike length, grains/spike, 1000 grain weight and harvest index where complex genetic interactions were changed to simple additive-dominance gene effects in the cross WH 147 × Raj 3077. Likewise, additive-dominance gene effects were altered and digenic interactions exhibited for days to maturity, flag leaf area in WH 147 × WH 533 and days to flowering, plant height, flag leaf area in WH 533 × Raj 3077. Flag leaf area and plant height were governed by additive gene effects while for days to maturity and 1000-grain weight both additive and dominance gene effect were important. Duplicate epistasis was important in all the three crosses for days to flowering and harvest index and in the cross WH 147 × Raj 3077 for grain weight grains per spike and flag leaf area.  
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