Paranodules and colonization of wheat roots by phytohormone producing bacteria in soil

https://doi.org/10.17221/3355-PSECitation:Narula N., Deubel A., Gans W., Behl R.K., Merbach W. (2006): Paranodules and colonization of wheat roots by phytohormone producing bacteria in soil. Plant Soil Environ., 52: 119-129.
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Soil bacteria belonging to the genus Azotobacter, Pantoea and some unidentified soil isolates were tested in vitro for phytohormone production under laboratory and soil conditions. The German wheat variety Munk was inoculated by several soil bacteria with exogenously applied hormones (IAA, 2,4-D) and a flavonoid(naringenin) with a half of the amount of recommended doses of fertilizers under greenhouse conditions. Most of the soil bacteria tested were able to produce indole acetic acid (IAA), and stimulated a lateral root development and colonization by the addition of 2,4-D and IAA. A formation of paranodules on roots as a result of crack entry invasion was observed with 2,4-D as well as with IAA. We were able to reisolate the organism from the paranodules and could establish the same results. Analyses for root exudates and in vitro phytohormone production by various bacterial isolates were also carried out, revealing that 2,4-D can be replaced either by high IAA producing bacteria or by exogenous application of IAA. Bacterial survival in the rhizosphere as well as the root and shoot weight of wheat plants were positively affected also by the addition of IAA, 2,4-D and naringenin.
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