Flare stacks on agricultural biogas plants – safety and operational requirements

https://doi.org/10.17221/1/2019-RAECitation:Trávníček P., Kotek L., Nejtek V., Koutný T., Junga P., Vítěz T. (2019): Flare stacks on agricultural biogas plants – safety and operational requirements. Res. Agr. Eng., 65: 98-104.
download PDF

The flare stack is a piece of equipment, which is used as a safety element at a biogas plant. In the case of a cogeneration unit or gas boiler failure, the biogas is redirected to the flare stack where it is burned. When the flare stack fails, the biogas releases to the atmosphere and an explosive mixture can form. The paper is focused on the description of the causes, which can cause the failure of the equipment. For this purpose, the individual components are described and, subsequently, the possibilities of their failure are discussed. In the next part of the work, the following scenario is considered: failure of the cogeneration unit and flare stack, the subsequent leakage of the biogas to the atmosphere. The calculation for determining the consequences of the biogas leakage is carried out. The size of the gaseous cloud and the explosion pressure in the case of a vapour cloud explosion are determined. The calculations were carried out by the software ALOHA (version 5.4.7).

References:
ARIA Database, S.D. and E. French Ministry of Ecology (2016): Analysis, Research and Information on Accidents. Available at http://www. aria.developpement-durable.gouv.fr/find-accident/?lang¼en
 
Bader A., Baukal C.E., Bussman W. (2011): Selecting the proper flare systems. CEP Magazine, July: 45–50.
 
Baker Q.A., Benac D.J., Olson D.B. (2011): Gas fired oven explosion. Process Safety Progress, 30: 377–380. https://doi.org/10.1002/prs.10479
 
Bellovich J., Franklin J., Schwartz B. (2007): Flare pilot system safety. Process Safety Progress, 26: 10–14.  https://doi.org/10.1002/prs.10154
 
Britton L.G. (2000): Using maximum experimental safe gap to select flame arresters. Process Safety Progress, 19: 140–145. https://doi.org/10.1002/prs.680190304
 
Burišin M. (2008): Prevence nehod, havárií a požárů při zřizování a provozu plynových zařízení. Available at http://vytapeni.tzb-info.cz/vytapime-plynem/5847-preventivni-opatreni-pro-spravnou-funkci-plynovych-zarizeni-iii
 
Caine M. (2000): Biogas flares state of the art and market review. Available at http://www.iea-biogas.net/files/daten-redaktion/download/publi-task37/Flaring_4-4.pdf
 
Edwards K.L., Norris M.J. (1999): Materials and constructions used in devices to prevent the spread of flames in pipelines and vessels. Materials and Design, 20: 245–252. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-3069(99)00004-7
 
eMARS (2019): Major accident reporting system. European Commission. Available at https://emars.jrc.ec.europa.eu/
 
Novák J., Malijevský A., Matouš J., Růžička K., Voňka P. (2007): Thermodynamical properties of gases. Praha. Vydavatelství VŠCHT: 192.
 
RIVM. National Institute of Public Health and the Environment (2009): Reference manual bevi risk assessments. Available at http://www.rivm.nl/sites/default/files/2018-11/Reference-Manual-Bevi-Risk-Assessments-version-3-2.pdf
 
Saint J. (2012): Minimising false alarms. Petroleum Review, November: 42 42.
 
Uijt de Haag P.A.M., Ale B.J.N. (1999): Purple Book: Guidelines for Quantitative Risk
 
Assessment. RIVM, Hague.
 
Vitázek I., Klúčik J., Uhrinová D., Mikulová Z., Mojžiš M. (2016): Thermodynamics of combustion gases from biogas. Research in Agriculture Engineering, 62 (Special Issue), S8–S13.
 
ZEMA (2016): Central Reporting and Evaluation Office for Major Accidents and Incidents in Process Engineering Facilities. Available at http://www.infosis.uba.de/index.php/en/ zema/index.html
 
download PDF

© 2019 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences