Mechanical test suitable for detection of bug-damage wheat grains abstract z., Rasekh M., Abbaspour-Gilandeh Y. (2018): Mechanical test suitable for detection of bug-damage wheat grains abstract. Res. Agr. Eng., 64: 77-84.
download PDF

Considering the fact that the presence of bug-damaged wheat in the bulk results in a decrease of the flour quality and its final product, which is bread, it is necessary to differentiate the bug-damaged wheat grains from the healthy ones. Therefore, the present study investigated the mechanical properties of bug-damaged and healthy wheat grains of the Azar cultivar. By making use of these mechanical properties, it would be possible to provide a more precise texture identification of the bug-damaged wheat grains compared to the healthy ones. In this study, the mechanical properties (rupture energy, toughness and apparent elastic coefficient) were determined under compressive loading, with four levels of loading velocity (5, 15, 25 and 35 mm.min–1) and four levels of moisture content (9, 11.5, 14 and 16.5% wet basis) in both bug-damaged and healthy wheat grains. Due to the significant difference in the mean value of apparent elastic coefficient between the bug-damaged grains (74.779 MPa) and the healthy ones (289.071 MPa), this parameter can be employed as the most appropriate factor to distinguish the bug-damaged wheat grains from the healthy ones. 

Afkari-Sayyah A.H, Minaei S. (2004): Behavior of wheat kernels under quasi-static loading and its relation to grain hardness. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology, 6: 11–19.
Aydin C., Ogut H., Kanak M. (2002): Some physical properties of turkish mahaleb. Journal of Bio-System Engineering, 82: 231–234.
ASAE Standards (2002): Moisture measurement - unground grain and seeds. American Society of Agricultural Engineers, St. Joseph, USA, S352.2.
ASAE Standards (2008): Compression test of food materials of convex shape. American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers, S368.4.
Babic L.J., Radojein M., Pavkov I., Babic M., Turan J., Zoranovic M., Stanisic S. (2013): Physical properties and compression loading behavior of corn seed. Journal of International Agrophysics, 27: 119–126.
Bargale Praveen C., Irudayaraj Joseph, Marquis Bruno (1995): Studies on Rheological Behaviour of Canola and Wheat. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 61, 267-274
Critchley Brian R. (1998): Literature review of sunn pest Eurygaster integriceps Put. (Hemiptera, Scutelleridae). Crop Protection, 17, 271-287
Every Dale, Farrell John A K, Stufkens Marlon W (1990): Wheat-bug damage in New Zealand wheats: The feeding mechanism of nysius huttoni and its effect on the morphological and physiological development of wheat. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 50, 297-309
Gupta R.K., Das S.K. (2000): Fracture resistance of sunflower seed and kernel to compressive loading. Journal of Food Engineering, 46, 1-8
Gorji A., Rajabipour A., Tavakoli H. (2010): Fracture resistance of wheat grain as a function of moisture content, loading rate and grain orientation. Australian Journal of Crop Science, 4: 448–452.
Y. S. Kang , C. K. Spillman , J. L. Steele , D. S. Chung (1995): Mechanical Properties of Wheat. Transactions of the ASAE, 38, 573-578
Konak M., Carman K., Aydin C. (2002): Physical properties of chickpea grains. Journal of Bio-Systems Engineering, 82: 73–78.
Kostyukovsky M., Zohar D. (2004): Sun pest eurygaster integriceps put. and wheat quality. In: International Quality Grain Conference Proceeding: 1–7.
Krupnov V. A. (2012): Wheat breeding for resistance to the Sunn pest (Eurygaster spp.): Does risk occur?. Russian Journal of Genetics: Applied Research, 2, 79-84
M. Liu , K. Haghighi , R. L. Stroshine , E. C. Ting (1990): MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF THE SOYBEAN COTYLEDON AND FAILURE STRENGTH OF SOYBEAN KERNELS. Transactions of the ASAE, 33, 0559-0566
Mohsenin N.N. (1986): Physical Properties of Plant and Animal Materials. Gordon and Breach Science Publisher, New York.
Molenda M., Stasiak M. (2002): Determination of the elastic constants of cereal grains in a uniaxial compression test. Journal of International Agrophysics, 16: 61–65.
Paulian F., Popov C. (1980): Sunn pest or cereal bug. In: Wheat technical monograph. Basel, Switzerland, Ciba-Geigy Ltd.
S. Prasad , C. P. Gupta (1973): Behavior of Paddy Grains under Quasi-Static Compressive Loading. Transactions of the ASAE, 16, 0328-0330
Rasekh M., Firoozabadi B., Minaei S., Afkari-sayah A.H., Asghari A. (2007): Compare some physical and mechanical properties pest–damaged wheat and sound sardari variety. Iranian Journal of Food Science and Technology, 12: 115–126.
Saadati F., Bandani A.R (2011): Effects of serine protease inhibitors on growth and development and digestive serine proteinases of the sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps. Journal of Insect Science, 11: 1–12.
Shurovenkov Yu.B., Ermakov A.V., Boiko N.I., Mikhailov N.A., Volodichev M.A. (1984): Grain condition and the sunn pest. Zashchita Rastenii, 8: 8–9. (In Russian)
Tavakoli H., Mohtasebi S.S., Rajabipour A., Tavakoli M. (2009): Effects of moisture content, loading rate, and grain orientation on fracture resistance of barley grain. Research in Agricultural Engineering, 55, 85-93
Tischler W. (1939): Schaden und Bekampfung der getreideschadlichen Blattwanzen. Arbeitsgemeinschaft Physiologischer und Angewandter Entomologie Berlin-Dahlem, 6: 14–32.
Tosi P., Parker M., Gritsch C. S., Carzaniga R., Martin B., Shewry P. R. (2009): Trafficking of storage proteins in developing grain of wheat. Journal of Experimental Botany, 60, 979-991
Vaccino Patrizia, Corbellini Maria, Reffo Gioia, Zoccatelli Gianni, Migliardi Matteo, Tavella Luciana (2006): Impact of Eurygaster maura (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae) Feeding on Quality of Bread Wheat in Relation to Attack Period. Journal of Economic Entomology, 99, 757-763
Voicu G.H., Tuosie E.M., Ungureanu N., Constantin G.A. (2013): Some mechanical characteristics of wheat seeds obtained by uniaxial compression tests. UPB Scientific Bulletin, Series D: Mechanical Engineering, 75: 265–277.
Zareiforoush H., Komarizadeh M.H., Alizadeh M.R. (2010): Mechanical properties of paddy grain under Quasi-static compressive loading. New York Science Journal, 3: 40–46.
download PDF

© 2019 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences