A simulation model was developed for secondary tillage and sowing operations in autumn, using discrete event simulation technique in Arena® simulation software (Version 14). Eight machinery sets were evaluated on a 50-hectare farm. Total costs including fixed-costs, variable costs and timeliness costs were calculated for each machinery set. Timeliness costs were estimated for 21-years period on daily basis (Daily Work method) and compared with another method (Average Work method) based on the equation proposed by ASAE Standards, EP 496.3FEB2006. The Inputs of the model were machinery sets, field size, machines performances and daily soil workability state. The optimization criteria were the lowest costs and lowest standard deviation in daily work method plus the lowest costs based on average work method. The validity of the model was evaluated by comparing the output of the model with field observed data collected from various farms. Results revealed that there was no significant difference (P > 0.01) between the observed and predicted finish day.
discrete event simulation; modeling, sowing; tillage, timeliness costs
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