The effect of tine, wing, operating depth and speed on the draft requirement of subsoil tillage tines 

https://doi.org/10.17221/4/2016-RAECitation:Askari M., Shahgholi G., Abbaspour-Gilandeh Y. (2017): The effect of tine, wing, operating depth and speed on the draft requirement of subsoil tillage tines . Res. Agr. Eng., 63: 160-167.
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In this study, the effect of tine type, adding wing, operating depth and forward speed on the draft requirement of subsoil tillage tines was investigated in clay loam soil. Three subsoil tillage tines (subsoiler, bentleg and paraplow), four levels of forward speed (1.8, 2.3, 2.9 and 3.5 km/h), three levels of depth (30, 40 and 50 cm) and winged and no-wing tines were examined with the exception of bentleg as it would not be winged. It was revealed that draft of the tines is less affected by forward speed but is much affected by tine type, depth and wing. It was observed that an increase of speed and depth plus adding wing results in an increase of draft in all tines. Additionally, it was found that in all depths and speeds, subsoiler required more draft than paraplow and paraplow required more draft than bentleg. Multiple regression models including the studied parameters were developed to predict the draft requirements for each tine with high accuracy.
References:
Abbaspour-Gilandeh Yousef, Khanramaki Morteza (2013): Design, Construction and Calibration of a Triaxial Dynamometer for Measuring Forces and Moments Applied on Tillage Implements in Field Conditions. MAPAN, 28, 119-127  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12647-013-0052-2
 
Al-Kheer A. Abo, Kharmanda M.G., Hami A. El, Mouazen A.M. (2011): Estimating the variability of tillage forces on a chisel plough shank by modeling the variability of tillage system parameters. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 78, 61-70  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compag.2011.06.001
 
Ahmed M.H., Godwin R.J. (1983): The influence of wing position on subsoiler penetration and soil disturbance. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 28, 489-492  https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-8634(83)90141-5
 
Alimardani R., Fazel Z., Akram A., Mahmoudi A., Varnamkhasti M.G. (2008): Design and development of a three-point hitch dynamometer. Journal of Agricultural Technology, 43: 37–52.
 
Al-Suhaibani A.S., Al-Jnobi A.A., Al-Majhadi Y.N. (2006): Tractors and tillage implements performance. In: Proceedings from the Canadian Society for Bio Engineering (CSBE-SCGAB) Annual Conference. Paper No. 06-129. July 16–19, 2006. Edmonton, Alberta.
 
Arvidsson Johan, Keller Thomas, Gustafsson Karin (2004): Specific draught for mouldboard plough, chisel plough and disc harrow at different water contents. Soil and Tillage Research, 79, 221-231  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2004.07.010
 
ASABE Standards (2009): ASAE D497.6, Agricultural machinery management data. Available at www.asabe.org
 
ASAE Standard (2000): ASAE D497.4. Agricultural Machinery Management Data. St. Joseph, ASAE.
 
Askari M., Komarizade M.H., Nikbakht A.M., Nobakht N., Teimourlou R.F. (2011): A novel three-point hitch dynamometer to measure the draft requirement of mounted implements. Research in Agricultural Engineering, 574: 128–136.
 
Bashford L.L., Byerly D.V., Grisso R.D. (1991): Draft and energy requirements of agricultural implements in semi-arid regions of Morocco. Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America, 223: 79–82.
 
Buston M.J., Rackham D.H. (1981): Vibratory soil cutting-II, and improved mathematical models. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 265: 419–439.
 
Celik Ahmet, Raper Randy L. (2012): Design and evaluation of ground-driven rotary subsoilers. Soil and Tillage Research, 124, 203-210  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2012.06.010
 
Desbiolles J.M.A., Godwin R.J., Kilgour J., Blackmore B.S. (1997): A Novel Approach to the Prediction of Tillage Tool Draught using a Standard Tine. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 66, 295-309  https://doi.org/10.1006/jaer.1997.0150
 
Di Prinzio A.P., Ayala C.D., Magdalena J.C. (1997): Energy evaluation of different techniques and subsoiling effects on soil bulk density. Agro-Science, 131: 61–67.
 
Durairaj C.Divaker, Balasubramanian M. (1997): Influence of tool angles and speed on the soil reactions of a bent leg plough in two soils. Soil and Tillage Research, 44, 137-150  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-1987(97)00048-2
 
Esehaghbeygi A., Tabatabaeefar A., Raoufat M.H., Keyhani A.R. (2002): Development and field evaluation of an oblique blade subsoiler and comparison of performance with a conventional L-shape subsoiler. Agricultural Sciences, 123: 67–81.
 
Glancey J (1996): Prediction of agricultural implement draft using an instrumented analog tillage tool. Soil and Tillage Research, 37, 47-65  https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-1987(95)00507-2
 
Godwin R.J., Spoor G., Leeds-Harrison P. (1981): An experimental investigation into the force mechanics and resulting soil disturbance of mole ploughs. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 26, 477-497  https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-8634(81)90081-0
 
H. Page Harrison (1988): Soil Reacting Forces for a Bentleg Plow. Transactions of the ASAE, 31, 0047-0051  https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.30663
 
H. P. Harrison (1982): Soil Reactions from Laboratory Studies with an Inclined Blade. Transactions of the ASAE, 25, 0007-0012  https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.33466
 
Kheiralla A.F, Yahya Azmi, Zohadie M, Ishak W (2004): Modelling of power and energy requirements for tillage implements operating in Serdang sandy clay loam, Malaysia. Soil and Tillage Research, 78, 21-34  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2003.12.011
 
Manuwa S.I., Ademosun O.C. (2007): Draught and soil disturbance of model tillage tines under varying soil parameters. Agricultural Engineering International: The CIGR journal, 154: 1–18.
 
Manuwa S.I. (2009): Performance evaluation of tillage tines operating under different depths in a sandy clay loam soil. Soil and Tillage Research, 103, 399-405  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2008.12.004
 
Moeenifar A., Mousavi-Seyedi S.R., Kalantari D. (2014): Influence of tillage depth, penetration angle and forward speed on the soil/thin-blade interaction force. Agricultural Engineering International: The CIGR Journal, 161: 69–74.
 
Ramadhan M.N. (2014): Development and performance evaluation of the double tines subsoiler in silty clay soil part1: draft force, disturbed area and specific resistance. Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 421: 293–313.
 
Ramadhan M.N. (2011): Field study to evaluate the mechanical performance of the double tines longitudinally arranged subsoiler and its effect on some growth characteristics of barley Hordeum vulgare L. [MSc. Thesis.] College of Agriculture, Basrah University, Iraq.
 
Ranjbarian Saeed, Askari Mohammad, Jannatkhah Javad (2017): Performance of tractor and tillage implements in clay soil. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, 16, 154-162  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jssas.2015.05.003
 
Raper R.L. (2005): Agricultural traffic impacts on soil. Journal of Terramechanics, 42, 259-280  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jterra.2004.10.010
 
Sahu R.K., Raheman H. (2006): Draught Prediction of Agricultural Implements using Reference Tillage Tools in Sandy Clay Loam Soil. Biosystems Engineering, 94, 275-284  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2006.01.015
 
Spoor G., Godwin R.J. (1978): An experimental investigation into the deep loosening of soil by rigid tines. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 23, 243-258  https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-8634(78)90099-9
 
J. D. Summers , A. Khalilian , D. G. Batchelder (1986): Draft Relationships for Primary Tillage in Oklahoma Soils. Transactions of the ASAE, 29, 0037-0039  https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.30097
 
Thake J.R. (1981): Measurement of the forces acting on a paraplow tine. [MSc.Thesis.] National College of Agricultural engineering, Cranfield institute of technology, Australia.
 
Abbaspour-Gilandeh Yousef, Khanramaki Morteza (2013): Design, Construction and Calibration of a Triaxial Dynamometer for Measuring Forces and Moments Applied on Tillage Implements in Field Conditions. MAPAN, 28, 119-127  https://doi.org/10.1007/s12647-013-0052-2
 
Al-Kheer A. Abo, Kharmanda M.G., Hami A. El, Mouazen A.M. (2011): Estimating the variability of tillage forces on a chisel plough shank by modeling the variability of tillage system parameters. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, 78, 61-70  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compag.2011.06.001
 
Ahmed M.H., Godwin R.J. (1983): The influence of wing position on subsoiler penetration and soil disturbance. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 28, 489-492  https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-8634(83)90141-5
 
Alimardani R., Fazel Z., Akram A., Mahmoudi A., Varnamkhasti M.G. (2008): Design and development of a three-point hitch dynamometer. Journal of Agricultural Technology, 43: 37–52.
 
Al-Suhaibani A.S., Al-Jnobi A.A., Al-Majhadi Y.N. (2006): Tractors and tillage implements performance. In: Proceedings from the Canadian Society for Bio Engineering (CSBE-SCGAB) Annual Conference. Paper No. 06-129. July 16–19, 2006. Edmonton, Alberta.
 
Arvidsson Johan, Keller Thomas, Gustafsson Karin (2004): Specific draught for mouldboard plough, chisel plough and disc harrow at different water contents. Soil and Tillage Research, 79, 221-231  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2004.07.010
 
ASABE Standards (2009): ASAE D497.6, Agricultural machinery management data. Available at www.asabe.org
 
ASAE Standard (2000): ASAE D497.4. Agricultural Machinery Management Data. St. Joseph, ASAE.
 
Askari M., Komarizade M.H., Nikbakht A.M., Nobakht N., Teimourlou R.F. (2011): A novel three-point hitch dynamometer to measure the draft requirement of mounted implements. Research in Agricultural Engineering, 574: 128–136.
 
Bashford L.L., Byerly D.V., Grisso R.D. (1991): Draft and energy requirements of agricultural implements in semi-arid regions of Morocco. Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America, 223: 79–82.
 
Buston M.J., Rackham D.H. (1981): Vibratory soil cutting-II, and improved mathematical models. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 265: 419–439.
 
Celik Ahmet, Raper Randy L. (2012): Design and evaluation of ground-driven rotary subsoilers. Soil and Tillage Research, 124, 203-210  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2012.06.010
 
Desbiolles J.M.A., Godwin R.J., Kilgour J., Blackmore B.S. (1997): A Novel Approach to the Prediction of Tillage Tool Draught using a Standard Tine. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 66, 295-309  https://doi.org/10.1006/jaer.1997.0150
 
Di Prinzio A.P., Ayala C.D., Magdalena J.C. (1997): Energy evaluation of different techniques and subsoiling effects on soil bulk density. Agro-Science, 131: 61–67.
 
Durairaj C.Divaker, Balasubramanian M. (1997): Influence of tool angles and speed on the soil reactions of a bent leg plough in two soils. Soil and Tillage Research, 44, 137-150  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-1987(97)00048-2
 
Esehaghbeygi A., Tabatabaeefar A., Raoufat M.H., Keyhani A.R. (2002): Development and field evaluation of an oblique blade subsoiler and comparison of performance with a conventional L-shape subsoiler. Agricultural Sciences, 123: 67–81.
 
Glancey J (1996): Prediction of agricultural implement draft using an instrumented analog tillage tool. Soil and Tillage Research, 37, 47-65  https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-1987(95)00507-2
 
Godwin R.J., Spoor G., Leeds-Harrison P. (1981): An experimental investigation into the force mechanics and resulting soil disturbance of mole ploughs. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 26, 477-497  https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-8634(81)90081-0
 
H. Page Harrison (1988): Soil Reacting Forces for a Bentleg Plow. Transactions of the ASAE, 31, 0047-0051  https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.30663
 
H. P. Harrison (1982): Soil Reactions from Laboratory Studies with an Inclined Blade. Transactions of the ASAE, 25, 0007-0012  https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.33466
 
Kheiralla A.F, Yahya Azmi, Zohadie M, Ishak W (2004): Modelling of power and energy requirements for tillage implements operating in Serdang sandy clay loam, Malaysia. Soil and Tillage Research, 78, 21-34  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2003.12.011
 
Manuwa S.I., Ademosun O.C. (2007): Draught and soil disturbance of model tillage tines under varying soil parameters. Agricultural Engineering International: The CIGR journal, 154: 1–18.
 
Manuwa S.I. (2009): Performance evaluation of tillage tines operating under different depths in a sandy clay loam soil. Soil and Tillage Research, 103, 399-405  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2008.12.004
 
Moeenifar A., Mousavi-Seyedi S.R., Kalantari D. (2014): Influence of tillage depth, penetration angle and forward speed on the soil/thin-blade interaction force. Agricultural Engineering International: The CIGR Journal, 161: 69–74.
 
Ramadhan M.N. (2014): Development and performance evaluation of the double tines subsoiler in silty clay soil part1: draft force, disturbed area and specific resistance. Mesopotamia Journal of Agriculture, 421: 293–313.
 
Ramadhan M.N. (2011): Field study to evaluate the mechanical performance of the double tines longitudinally arranged subsoiler and its effect on some growth characteristics of barley Hordeum vulgare L. [MSc. Thesis.] College of Agriculture, Basrah University, Iraq.
 
Ranjbarian Saeed, Askari Mohammad, Jannatkhah Javad (2017): Performance of tractor and tillage implements in clay soil. Journal of the Saudi Society of Agricultural Sciences, 16, 154-162  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jssas.2015.05.003
 
Raper R.L. (2005): Agricultural traffic impacts on soil. Journal of Terramechanics, 42, 259-280  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jterra.2004.10.010
 
Sahu R.K., Raheman H. (2006): Draught Prediction of Agricultural Implements using Reference Tillage Tools in Sandy Clay Loam Soil. Biosystems Engineering, 94, 275-284  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2006.01.015
 
Spoor G., Godwin R.J. (1978): An experimental investigation into the deep loosening of soil by rigid tines. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 23, 243-258  https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-8634(78)90099-9
 
J. D. Summers , A. Khalilian , D. G. Batchelder (1986): Draft Relationships for Primary Tillage in Oklahoma Soils. Transactions of the ASAE, 29, 0037-0039  https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.30097
 
Thake J.R. (1981): Measurement of the forces acting on a paraplow tine. [MSc.Thesis.] National College of Agricultural engineering, Cranfield institute of technology, Australia.
 
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