Bonding of wood

https://doi.org/10.17221/8/2014-RAECitation:Brožek M. (2015): Bonding of wood. Res. Agr. Eng., 61: 134-139.
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The paper presents the results of strength tests of joints made using six different adhesives destined by their producers for bonding wood. Bonded samples were made from seven sorts of wood commonly growing in the Czech Republic, namely ash, beach, cherry, maple, pine, spruce and walnut. From semi-products (boards, planks, squared timber logs) the test samples of dimensions 25 × 100 mm and 4 mm thickness were cut out in the direction of year rings. Always two samples were bonded together so that their overlap was of 12.5 mm. All these assemblies were loaded using the universal testing machine up to their rupture. The rupture force and the rupture type (rupture in the joint, in the bonded material) were registered. The aim of the tests was to assess the influence of the used adhesive on the bonded joint strength at different woods, to assess the variability of the adhesive consumption at the manual adhesive application by different workers and to determine costs for bonding of different woods using different adhesives. From the results it follows that between six tested adhesives used for bonding of seven sorts of wood, considerable differences exist not only as regards their price, but also their quality. From the results it also follows that the manual adhesive application is very unequal, because it depends on the dexterity and care of the worker. Next, the costs for bonding of different woods using different adhesives were determined.
References:
Brožek Milan (): Technical-economical evaluation of the overlays application on the plough shares. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, 55, 129-136  https://doi.org/10.11118/actaun200755040129
 
Brožek M. (2013a): Optimization of adhesive layer thickness at metal bonding using quick-setting adhesives. Manufacturing Technology, 13: 419–423.
 
Brožek M. (2013b): Soldering sheets using soft solders. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, 61: 1597–1604.
 
Brožek M. (2013c): Soldering steel sheets using soft solder. Research in Agriculture Engineering, 59: 141–146.
 
Brožek M. (2013d): Technical-economical evaluation of plywood bonding. In: 5th International Conference Trends in Agricultural Engineering. Sept. 3–6, 2013. Prague, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague: 100–105.
 
Brožek M. (2014): Technical-economical evaluation of beech plywood bonding. In.: 13th International Scientific Conference Engineering for Rural Development. May 29–30, 2014. Jelgava, Latvia University of Agriculture: 168–173.
 
Cagle Ch.V. (1973): Handbook of Adhesive Bonding. New York, McGraw-Hill.
 
Chen Chia M. (1995): Gluability of Kraft Lignin Copolymer Resins on Bonding Southern Pine Plywood. Holzforschung, 49, 153-157  https://doi.org/10.1515/hfsg.1995.49.2.153
 
Cheng Rui-Xiang, Wang Qing-Wen (): The Influence of FRW-1 Fire Retardant Treatment on the Bonding of Plywood. Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, 25, 1715-1724  https://doi.org/10.1163/016942410X549951
 
D’Amico Stefano, Hrabalova Marta, Müller Ulrich, Berghofer Emmerich (2012): Influence of ageing on mechanical properties of wood to wood bonding with wheat flour glue. European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, 70, 679-688  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00107-012-0595-x
 
Ebnesajjad S. (2008): Adhesives Technology Handbook.
 
2nd Ed. Norwich, William Andrew.
 
Epstein G. (1954): Adhesive Bonding of Metals. New York, Reinhold.
 
Faherty K.F., Williamson T.G. (1995): Wood Engineering and Construction Handbook. 2nd Ed. New York: Osborne-McGraw-Hill.
 
Fecht S., Vallée T., Tannert T., Fricke H. (): Adhesively Bonded Hardwood Joints under Room Temperature and Elevated Temperatures. The Journal of Adhesion, 90, 401-419  https://doi.org/10.1080/00218464.2013.836968
 
Garcia Esteban L., Garcia Fernandez F., de Palacios P. (2011): Prediction of plywood bonding quality using an artificial neural network. Holzforschung, 65: 209–214.
 
He G., Feng M., Dai C., (2012): Development of soy-based adhesives for the manufacture of wood composite products. Holzforschung, 66: 857–862.
 
Hiziroglu Salim, Zhong Z.W., Ong W.K. (2014): Evaluating of bonding strength of pine, oak and nyatoh wood species related to their surface roughness. Measurement, 49, 397-400  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2013.11.053
 
Iwakir S., Trianoski R., da Cunha A.B., Prata J.G., Hara M., Bila N.F., Guina R.C.G., de Araújo R.D., Bôas B.T.V. (2013): Evaluation of the strength of wood bonded joints of Eucalyptus benthamii glued with different adhesives and gluing surfaces. Scientia Forestalis, 41: 411–416.
 
Kafka E. (1989): Dřevařská příručka. 1st Ed. Prague, Nakladatelství technické literatury.
 
Kettunen P.O. (2006): Wood: Structure and Properties. Uetikon-Zuerich; Enfield, Trans Tech Publication.
 
Loctite (1988): Der Loctite. München, Loctite.
 
Nováková A., Brožek M. (2009): Bonding of non-metallic materials using thermoplastic adhesives. In: 8th International Scientific Conference Engineering for Rural Development. May 28–29, 2009, Jelgava, Latvia University of Agriculture: 261–264.
 
Olivares Marcela, Sellers Terry Jr. (1994): Resin-Adhesive Formulations for Bonding Exterior-Type Plywood Using Chilean Radiata Pine and Four Hardwoods. Holzforschung, 48, 157-162  https://doi.org/10.1515/hfsg.1994.48.2.157
 
Peschel P. (2002): Dřevařská příručka. Tabulky. Technické údaje. Prague, Sobotáles.
 
Pizzi A., Mittal K.L., 2003. Handbook of Adhesive Technology. New York, Dekker.
 
Pluhař J. et al. (1989): Nauka o materiálech. Prague, SNTL.
 
Sellers T. (1989): Diisocyanate furfural adhesive for bonding plywood. Forest Production Journal. 39: 53–56.
 
Slavid R. (2009): Wood Architecture. Paperback Ed. London, Laurence King.
 
Stoeckel Frank, Konnerth Johannes, Gindl-Altmutter Wolfgang (2013): Mechanical properties of adhesives for bonding wood—A review. International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 45, 32-41  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijadhadh.2013.03.013
 
Tsoumis G. (1991): Science and technology of wood: Structure, properties, utilization. New York, Chapman & Hall.
 
Uysal Burhanettin, Kurt Şeref, Yildirim Mehmet Nuri (2010): Bonding strength of wood materials bonded with different adhesive after aging test. Construction and Building Materials, 24, 2628-2632  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.04.065
 
Voulgaridis E., Passialis C., Negri M., Adamopoulos S. (2012): Shear bond strength of black locust wood glued with three adhesive systems. Wood Research, 57: 489–496.
 
Yang In, Kuo Monlin, Myers Deland J. (2006): Bond quality of soy-based phenolic adhesives in southern pine plywood. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 83, 231-237  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-006-1198-7
 
Zahradníček V., Horák P. (2007): Moderní dřevostavby. 1st Ed. Brno, ERA.
 
Brožek Milan (): Technical-economical evaluation of the overlays application on the plough shares. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, 55, 129-136  https://doi.org/10.11118/actaun200755040129
 
Brožek M. (2013a): Optimization of adhesive layer thickness at metal bonding using quick-setting adhesives. Manufacturing Technology, 13: 419–423.
 
Brožek M. (2013b): Soldering sheets using soft solders. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, 61: 1597–1604.
 
Brožek M. (2013c): Soldering steel sheets using soft solder. Research in Agriculture Engineering, 59: 141–146.
 
Brožek M. (2013d): Technical-economical evaluation of plywood bonding. In: 5th International Conference Trends in Agricultural Engineering. Sept. 3–6, 2013. Prague, Czech University of Life Sciences Prague: 100–105.
 
Brožek M. (2014): Technical-economical evaluation of beech plywood bonding. In.: 13th International Scientific Conference Engineering for Rural Development. May 29–30, 2014. Jelgava, Latvia University of Agriculture: 168–173.
 
Cagle Ch.V. (1973): Handbook of Adhesive Bonding. New York, McGraw-Hill.
 
Chen Chia M. (1995): Gluability of Kraft Lignin Copolymer Resins on Bonding Southern Pine Plywood. Holzforschung, 49, 153-157  https://doi.org/10.1515/hfsg.1995.49.2.153
 
Cheng Rui-Xiang, Wang Qing-Wen (): The Influence of FRW-1 Fire Retardant Treatment on the Bonding of Plywood. Journal of Adhesion Science and Technology, 25, 1715-1724  https://doi.org/10.1163/016942410X549951
 
D’Amico Stefano, Hrabalova Marta, Müller Ulrich, Berghofer Emmerich (2012): Influence of ageing on mechanical properties of wood to wood bonding with wheat flour glue. European Journal of Wood and Wood Products, 70, 679-688  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00107-012-0595-x
 
Ebnesajjad S. (2008): Adhesives Technology Handbook.
 
2nd Ed. Norwich, William Andrew.
 
Epstein G. (1954): Adhesive Bonding of Metals. New York, Reinhold.
 
Faherty K.F., Williamson T.G. (1995): Wood Engineering and Construction Handbook. 2nd Ed. New York: Osborne-McGraw-Hill.
 
Fecht S., Vallée T., Tannert T., Fricke H. (): Adhesively Bonded Hardwood Joints under Room Temperature and Elevated Temperatures. The Journal of Adhesion, 90, 401-419  https://doi.org/10.1080/00218464.2013.836968
 
Garcia Esteban L., Garcia Fernandez F., de Palacios P. (2011): Prediction of plywood bonding quality using an artificial neural network. Holzforschung, 65: 209–214.
 
He G., Feng M., Dai C., (2012): Development of soy-based adhesives for the manufacture of wood composite products. Holzforschung, 66: 857–862.
 
Hiziroglu Salim, Zhong Z.W., Ong W.K. (2014): Evaluating of bonding strength of pine, oak and nyatoh wood species related to their surface roughness. Measurement, 49, 397-400  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2013.11.053
 
Iwakir S., Trianoski R., da Cunha A.B., Prata J.G., Hara M., Bila N.F., Guina R.C.G., de Araújo R.D., Bôas B.T.V. (2013): Evaluation of the strength of wood bonded joints of Eucalyptus benthamii glued with different adhesives and gluing surfaces. Scientia Forestalis, 41: 411–416.
 
Kafka E. (1989): Dřevařská příručka. 1st Ed. Prague, Nakladatelství technické literatury.
 
Kettunen P.O. (2006): Wood: Structure and Properties. Uetikon-Zuerich; Enfield, Trans Tech Publication.
 
Loctite (1988): Der Loctite. München, Loctite.
 
Nováková A., Brožek M. (2009): Bonding of non-metallic materials using thermoplastic adhesives. In: 8th International Scientific Conference Engineering for Rural Development. May 28–29, 2009, Jelgava, Latvia University of Agriculture: 261–264.
 
Olivares Marcela, Sellers Terry Jr. (1994): Resin-Adhesive Formulations for Bonding Exterior-Type Plywood Using Chilean Radiata Pine and Four Hardwoods. Holzforschung, 48, 157-162  https://doi.org/10.1515/hfsg.1994.48.2.157
 
Peschel P. (2002): Dřevařská příručka. Tabulky. Technické údaje. Prague, Sobotáles.
 
Pizzi A., Mittal K.L., 2003. Handbook of Adhesive Technology. New York, Dekker.
 
Pluhař J. et al. (1989): Nauka o materiálech. Prague, SNTL.
 
Sellers T. (1989): Diisocyanate furfural adhesive for bonding plywood. Forest Production Journal. 39: 53–56.
 
Slavid R. (2009): Wood Architecture. Paperback Ed. London, Laurence King.
 
Stoeckel Frank, Konnerth Johannes, Gindl-Altmutter Wolfgang (2013): Mechanical properties of adhesives for bonding wood—A review. International Journal of Adhesion and Adhesives, 45, 32-41  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijadhadh.2013.03.013
 
Tsoumis G. (1991): Science and technology of wood: Structure, properties, utilization. New York, Chapman & Hall.
 
Uysal Burhanettin, Kurt Şeref, Yildirim Mehmet Nuri (2010): Bonding strength of wood materials bonded with different adhesive after aging test. Construction and Building Materials, 24, 2628-2632  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2010.04.065
 
Voulgaridis E., Passialis C., Negri M., Adamopoulos S. (2012): Shear bond strength of black locust wood glued with three adhesive systems. Wood Research, 57: 489–496.
 
Yang In, Kuo Monlin, Myers Deland J. (2006): Bond quality of soy-based phenolic adhesives in southern pine plywood. Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society, 83, 231-237  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11746-006-1198-7
 
Zahradníček V., Horák P. (2007): Moderní dřevostavby. 1st Ed. Brno, ERA.
 
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