Best management practices for mitigating agricultural nutrient pollution in the Mun River Basin, Thailand

Bridhikitti A., Prabamroong T., Liu G., Yu G.-A. (2021): Best management practices for mitigating agricultural nutrient pollution in the Mun River Basin, Thailand. Soil & Water Res., 16: 121−128. 

download PDF

The Mun River in NE Thailand is one of the significant tributaries of the Lower Mekong River. Its poor river quality has been reported and agricultural activities were claimed to be major causes. This study aims to assess the best management measures appropriately responsive to the nutrient pollution in the Mun River Basin’s agricultural ecosystems. The data used for the analysis were acquired from field measurements during the 2018 wet season via satellite retrieval and secondary data collection. Linkages between land-soil datasets and hydro-water quality datasets were assessed through a canonical correlation analysis. The results suggest possible conservation measures with crop yield improvement and fertiliser cost reduction in the western basin. For the southern basin, which exhibits high sediment loading, integrated conservation measures for soil loss reduction with in-stream flow deceleration should be chosen. In the eastern basin, woody buffer strips and check dams should be prioritised. Both nutrient and sediment pollution were experienced in the middle part of the Mun River Basin and applications of low-P manure with mineral NK are recommended. Nonetheless, other soil-water conservation measures can be optionally applied to enhance the effectiveness in the watershed management.

Abbasi N.A., Xu X., Lucas-Borja M.E., Dang W., Liu B. (2019): The use of check dams in watershed management projects: Examples from around the world. Science of the Total Environment, 676: 683–691.
Alcon F., Marín-Miñano C., Zabala J.A., de-Miguel M.-D., Martínez-Paz J.M. (2020): Valuing diversification benefits through intercropping in Mediterranean agroecosystems: A choice experiment approach. Ecological Economics, 171: 106593.
Bray R.H., Kurtz L.T. (1945): Determination of total, organic, and available forms of phosphorus in soils. Soil Science, 59: 39–45.
Bremner J.M., Keeney D.R. (1965): Steam distillation methods for determination of ammonium, nitrate, and nitrite. Analytica Chimica Acta, 32: 485–495.
Chen J., Xiao H., Li Z., Liu C., Ning K., Tang C. (2020): How effective are soil and water conservation measures (SWCMs) in reducing soil and water losses in the red soil hilly region of China? A meta-analysis of field plot data. Science of the Total Environment, 735: 139517.
Choenkwan S., Fox J.M., Rambo A.T. (2014): Agriculture in the mountains of Northeastern Thailand: current situation and prospects for development. Mountain Research and Development, 34: 95–106.
Cochrane T.A., Arias M.E., Piman T. (2014): Historical impact of water infrastructure on water levels of the Mekong River and the Tonle Sap system. Hydrology and Earth System Sciences, 18: 4529–4541.
Department of Land Development (2020): 62 Soil Groups. Availabe at (accessed Jan 18, 2020).
Dutta S., Rekha Gogoi R., Khanikar L., Shubro Bose R., Prasad Sarma K. (2016): Assessment of hydrogeochemistry and water quality index (WQI) in some wetlands of the Brahmaputra valley, Assam, India. Desalination and Water Treatment, 57: 27614–27626.
HAII (2012): Data Collection and Analysis. The Project on Database Developments for 25 Basins and Extreme Water Simulation Models – Mun River Basin. Hydro and Agro Informatics Institute. Available at (accessed Jan 18, 2020).
Inboonchuay T., Chimchart B., Manoonyo J., Bootpetch S. (2019): Assessing soil erosion and nutrient losses under soil and water conservation measures in maize plantation, Khao Suan Kwang District, Khon Kaen Province. Journal of Agriculture, 35: 447–459. (in Thai)
Khangembam S., Kshetrimayum K.S. (2019): Evaluation of hydrogeochemical controlling factors and water quality index of water resources of the Barak valley of Assam, Northeast India. Groundwater for Sustainable Development, 8: 541–553.
Pansak W., Hilger T.H., Dercon G., Kongkaew T., Cadisch G. (2008): Changes in the relationship between soil erosion and N loss pathways after establishing soil conservation systems in uplands of Northeast Thailand. Agriculture, Ecosystem and Environment, 128: 167–176.
Parfitt R.L., Salt G.J. (2001): Carbon and nitrogen mineralisation in sand, silt, and clay fractions of soils under maize and pasture. Soil Research, 39: 361–371.
Qin T., Yang P., Groves C., Chen F., Xie G., Zhan Z. (2018): Natural and anthropogenic factors affecting geochemistry of the Jialing and Yangtze Rivers in urban Chongqing, SW China. Applied Geochemistry, 98: 448–458.
Rambo A.T. (2017): The agrarian transformation in Northeastern Thailand: a review of recent research. Southeast Asian Studies, 6: 211–245.
Saenya J., Anusontpornperm S., Thanachit S., Kheoruenromne I. (2015): Potential of paddy soils for Jasmine rice production in Si Sa Ket Province, Northeast Thailand. Asian Journal of Crop Science, 7: 34–47.
Shi L.L., Shen M.X., Lu C.Y., Wang H.H., Zhou X.W., Jin M.J., Wu T.D. (2015): Soil phosphorus dynamic, balance and critical P values in long-term fertilization experiment in Taihu Lake region, China. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 14: 2446–2455.
Sparrius L.B., Sevink J., Kooijman A.M. (2012): Effects of nitrogen deposition on soil and vegetation in primary succession stages in inland drift sands. Plant and Soil, 353: 261–272.
Tanveer M., Anjum S.A., Hussain S., Bolinches A.C., Ashraf U. (2017): Relay cropping as a sustainable approach: problems and opportunities for sustainable crop production. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 24: 6973–6988.
Wischmeier W.H., Smith D.D. (1978): Predicting Rainfall Erosion Losses: A Guide to Conservation Planning. Monograph No. 537, Maryland, Department of Agriculture, Science and Education.
Xiong M., Sun R., Chen L. (2018): Effects of soil conservation techniques on water erosion control: A global analysis. Science of the Total Environment, 645: 753–760.
Yadav S., Babel M.S., Shrestha S., Deb P. (2019): Land use impact on the water quality of large tropical river: Mun River Basin, Thailand. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 191: 614.
Zhao Z., Liu G., Liu Q., Huang C., Li H., Wu C. (2018): Distribution characteristics and seasonal variation of soil nutrients in the Mun River Basin, Thailand. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15: 1818.
download PDF

© 2022 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Prohlášení o přístupnosti