Assessment of soil heavy metal pollution in a former mining area – before and after the end of mining activities
Toxicity and persistence of heavy metals, which are accumulated in the environment as the result of diverse industrial activities, represent serious environmental problem worldwide. The intense mineral extraction in mining areas has produced a large amount of waste material and tailings, which release toxic elements to the environment. The aim of the study was to determine in two time horizons (1997, 2015) the heavy metal contents of samples derived from ten sampling sites located in the former mining area of Central Spiš (Slovakia). In order to compare the level of contamination, the contamination factor (Cif), degree of contamination (Cd), and pollution load index (PLI) were computed. Spearman’s correlation coefficient was used in order to detect the relationships among heavy metals. A serious situation was found for Hg, Zn, and Cd, which exceeded limit values at all sampling sites within both studied years. In 1997, the average values of contamination factor have shown very high contamination with all studied heavy metals, and moderate contamination with Co. In 2015, the study area was classified as very highly contaminated with As, Hg, Zn, Cu, considerably contaminated with Ni, Cr, Pb, and Cd, while Co contamination was not detected. Since 1997 till 2015 the pollution load index decreased by about 38%, nevertheless even then almost all sampling sites were classified as heavily polluted. Despite the fact that mining activities were stopped or limited at the beginning of the 21st century, the presence of heavy metals in soils remains at a serious level. The high level of contamination is a result of heavy metal persistence and non-biodegradability.
Alloway B.J. (2010): Sources of heavy metals and metalloids in Soils. In: Alloway B.J. (ed.): Heavy Metals in Soils: Trace Metals and Metalloids in Soils and their Bioavailability. New York, Springer: 11–50.
Angelovičová Lenka, Lodenius Martin, Tulisalo Esa, Fazekašová Danica (2014): Effect of Heavy Metals on Soil Enzyme Activity at Different Field Conditions in Middle Spis Mining Area (Slovakia). Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 93, 670-675 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-014-1397-0
Bálintová M., Singovszká E., Petriláková A. (2014): Study of heavy metals stratification in sediment in reservoir Ružin (Slovakia). Pollack Periodica, 34: 35–42.
Banasová V., Lackovičová A. (2004): The disturbance of grasslands in the vicinity of copper plant in the town of Krompachy (Slovenské Rudohorie Mts, NE Slovakia). Bulletin of Slovak Botanical Company, 26: 153–161. (in Slovak)
Bekteshi A., Bara G. (2013): Uptake of heavy metals from Plantago major in the Region of Durres, Albania. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 22: 1881–1885.
Chen Hao, Lu Xinwei, Li Loretta Y., Gao Tianning, Chang Yuyu (2014): Metal contamination in campus dust of Xi'an, China: A study based on multivariate statistics and spatial distribution. Science of The Total Environment, 484, 27-35 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.03.026
Čurlík J., Šefčík P. (1999): Geochemical Atlas of the Slovak Republic. Part V: Soils. Bratislava, Ministry of Environment. (in Slovak)
Džatko M. (1989): Pedoecological, productive and environment aspects of the land use classification in Slovakia. Soil conservation and environment. In: Proc. 7th Czechoslovak Soil Science Conf., Pieštany, 1989: 208–210.
Gholizadeh A., Borůvka L., Saberioon M.M., Kozák J., Vašát R., Němeček K. (2016): Comparing different data preprocessing methods for monitoring soil heavy metals based on soil spectral features. Soil and Water Research, 10, 218-227 https://doi.org/10.17221/113/2015-SWR
Hakanson Lars (1980): An ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control.a sedimentological approach. Water Research, 14, 975-1001 https://doi.org/10.1016/0043-1354(80)90143-8
Holub Marian, Balintova Magdalena, Singovszka Eva (2015): Quality of the bottom sediments in the area affected by mining activities. Pollack Periodica, 10, 109-116 https://doi.org/10.1556/606.2015.10.3.11
Hronec O., Toth J., Holobradý K. (1992): Air pollutants in relation to soils and plants in eastern Slovakia. Bratislava, Príroda. (in Slovak)
Hronec O., Vilček J., Tóth T., Andrejovský P., Adamišin P., Andrejovská A., Daňová M., Huttmanová E., Vilmová M., Škultéty P., Juhasová M. (2008): Heavy metals in soils and plants of Rudansko-gelnicka loaded area. Acta regionalia et environmentalica, 1: 24–28.
Iavazzo Pietro, Adamo Paola, Boni Maria, Hillier Stephen, Zampella Mariavittoria (2012): Mineralogy and chemical forms of lead and zinc in abandoned mine wastes and soils: An example from Morocco. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 113, 56-67 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gexplo.2011.06.001
Jabłońska Beata, Siedlecka Ewa (2015): Removing heavy metals from wastewaters with use of shales accompanying the coal beds. Journal of Environmental Management, 155, 58-66 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.02.015
Kabata-Pendias A. (2011): Trace Elements in Soils and Plants. London, Taylor and Francis Group.
Kabata-Pendias A., Pendias H. (1992): Trace Elements in Soils and Plants. London, CRC Press.
Lastincová J., Pospišilová L., Matuskova L., Kaderova E., Beinrohr E. (2003): Determination of total contents of Cd, Pb, Cr, Ni, As, Cu, Zn, Co, V, Mo in some Slovak soils. Chemical Papers, 57: 131–135.
Li Z.Y., Ma Z.W., van der Kuijp T.J., Yuan Z.W., Huang L. (2014): A review of soil heavy metal pollution from mines in China: pollution and health risk assessment. Science of the Total Environment, 468: 843–853.
Liakopoulos A., Lemiere B., Michael K., Crouzet C., Laperche V., Romaidis I., Drougas I., Lassin A. (2010): Environmental impacts of unmanaged solid waste at a former base metal mining and ore processing site (Kirki, Greece). Waste Management & Research, 28: 996–1009.
Lizárraga-Mendiola L., González-Sandoval M. R., Durán-Domínguez M. C., Márquez-Herrera C. (2009): Geochemical behavior of heavy metals in a Zn–Pb–Cu mining area in the State of Mexico (central Mexico). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 155, 355-372 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-008-0440-1
Ma Li, Sun Jing, Yang Zhaoguang, Wang Lin (2015): Heavy metal contamination of agricultural soils affected by mining activities around the Ganxi River in Chenzhou, Southern China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187, - https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-015-4966-8
Mayanna Sathish, Peacock Caroline L., Schäffner Franziska, Grawunder Anja, Merten Dirk, Kothe Erika, Büchel Georg (2015): Biogenic precipitation of manganese oxides and enrichment of heavy metals at acidic soil pH. Chemical Geology, 402, 6-17 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemgeo.2015.02.029
Mehrabi Behzad, Mehrabani Shiva, Rafiei Behrouz, Yaghoubi Behrouz (2015): Assessment of metal contamination in groundwater and soils in the Ahangaran mining district, west of Iran. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187, - https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-015-4864-0
Michaeli E., Boltižiar M. (2010). Selected localities of environmental loades in environmentally loaded areas in Slovakia. Geographica Studies. 52: 638–643.
Mirzaei Rouhollah, Teymourzade Safiye, Sakizadeh Mohamad, Ghorbani Hadi (2015): Comparative study of heavy metals concentration in topsoil of urban green space and agricultural land uses. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 187, - https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-015-4973-9
Pavlů L., Borůvka L., Nikodem A., Mühlhanselová M., Penížek V. (2007): Altitude and forest type effects on soil in the Jizera Mountains Region. Soil and Water, 2: 35–44.
Rafiei B., Bakhtiari Nejad M., Hashemi M., Khodaei A.S. (2010): Distribution of heavy metals around the Dashkasan Au mine. International Journal of Environmental Research, 4: 647–654.
Singovszka Eva, Junakova Natalia, Balintova Magdalena (2015): The Effect of Sediment Grain Size on Heavy Metal Content in Different Depth in Water Reservoir Ruzin, Slovakia. Solid State Phenomena, 244, 240-245 https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/SSP.244.240
Slávik Marek, Tóth Tomáš, Árvay Július, Harangozo Ľuboš, Kopernická Miriama (2016): The heavy metals content in wild growing mushrooms from burdened Spiš area. Potravinarstvo, 10, - https://doi.org/10.5219/564
Soudek P., Rodriquez Valseca I.M., Petrová Š., Vaněk T. (2015): The accumulation of heavy metals by Sorghum plants cultivated in biochar present. In: Hu Z. (ed.): Legislation, Technology and Practice of Mine Land Reclamation. London, Taylor & Francis Group: 183–187.
Stanovič Radovan, Árvay Július, Hauptvogl Martin, Tomáš Ján, Kováčik Anton, Záhorcová Zuzana, Slávik Marek (2016): Determination of heavy metals concentration in raw sheep milk from mercury polluted area. Potravinarstvo, 10, - https://doi.org/10.5219/536
Szabó J., Nagy A.S, Erdös J. (2015): Ambient concentrations of PM10, PM10 – bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in an urban site of Gyor, Hungary. Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health, 8: 229–241.
Tomlinson D. L., Wilson J. G., Harris C. R., Jeffrey D. W. (1980): Problems in the assessment of heavy-metal levels in estuaries and the formation of a pollution index. Helgoländer Meeresuntersuchungen, 33, 566-575 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02414780
Violante A., Huang M.P., Gadd M.G. (2008): Biophysico-chemical processes of heavy metals and metaloids in soil environments. New Jersey, John Wiley & Sons.
Wang Xiangqin, He Mengchang, Xie Jun, Xi Jianhong, Lu Xiaofei (2010): Heavy metal pollution of the world largest antimony mine-affected agricultural soils in Hunan province (China). Journal of Soils and Sediments, 10, 827-837 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-010-0196-4
Wilcke W., Krauss M., Kobza J., Zech W. (2001): Quantification of anthropogenic lead in Slovak forest and arable soils along a deposition gradient with stable lead isotope rations, Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 164: 303–307.
Woch M.W., Kapusta P., Steganowicz A.M. (2015): Variation in dry grassland communities along a heavy metals gradient. Ecotoxicology, 25: 88–90.