Kinetics of non-exchangeable potassium release in selected soil orders of southern Iran
Non-exchangeable K release can greatly influence soil K fertility. This study was carried out to study the release of non-exchangeable K from 22 surface and subsurface soils of southern Iran using successive extraction with 10 mmol/l of CaCl2 and oxalic acid in a period of 2−1368 h at 25 ± 1°C. Alfisols, Aridisols, Entisols, Inceptisols, Mollisols, and Histosols were among the studied soil orders. Illite, smectite, chlorite, vermiculite, kaolinite and palygorskite clay minerals were identified. The amount of non-exchangeable K varied from 95 to 506 mg/kg. Results showed that CaCl2 and oxalic acid released 60 and 55% of non-exchangeable K from soils, respectively. The discontinuity in slope was found when the cumulative amount of released K was plotted versus time, supporting the multi-reactive nature of K exchange sites. The cumulative K release in soils ranged from 87 to 300 mg/kg for CaCl2 and 78 to 300 mg/kg for oxalic acid which was well described by simplified Elovich and power function equations. The b constant of simplified Elovich as an index of non-exchangeable K release rate was in the range of 10 to 36 mg/kg for CaCl2 and 11 to 36 mg/kg for oxalic acid. The highest b constant was measured in Inceptisols and Alfisols, while the lowest values were found in Entisols and Histosols. In conclusion, the K release pattern was similar for both extractants and affected by clay content and type, and soil depth.
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