Using HYDRUS to simulate the dynamic changes of Ca2+ and Na+ in sodic soils reclaimed by gypsum
J. Wang, Z. Bai, P. Yanghttps://doi.org/10.17221/14/2015-SWRCitation:Wang J., Bai Z., Yang P. (2016): Using HYDRUS to simulate the dynamic changes of Ca2+ and Na+ in sodic soils reclaimed by gypsum. Soil & Water Res., 11: 1-10.
Sodic soils are characterized by the occurrence of excess sodium to levels that can adversely affect soil structure. In recent years, with the advent of alternatives for reclaiming sodic soils, such as the addition of by-products of flue gas desulfurization, fly ash, phosphogypsum, etc., using CaSO4 to reclaim sodic soil has again become a hot topic. In this study, cation exchange batch experiments and column leaching experiments were conducted to analyze the adsorption-exchange and dynamic changes of Ca2+ and Na+ during the reclamation of sodic soils with CaSO4. The HYDRUS-1D software was subsequently used to simulate and predict dynamic changes in Ca2+ and Na+. The cation exchange batch experiments consisted of six treatments with six CaSO4 rates (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 g/l), and the column leaching experiments consisted of two treatments with two CaSO4 concentrations (0.5 and 1.5 g/l). The results of the static cation exchange batch experiments indicated that the ion adsorption-exchange coefficients KCa-Na, KCa-Mg,andKCa-K were 1.9, 0.8, and 1.1, respectively. Applying CaSO4 and leaching are efficient methods to reclaim sodic soil. The pH and electrical conductivity of the soil solution gradually decreased with longer leaching time in all of the treatments. HYDRUS-1D successfully simulated both the dynamic changes of the Ca2+ and Na+ concentrations at different soil depths under different treatments and leaching time, and the effects of soil hydraulic conductivity and soil pH on the transport of Ca2+ and Na+. The correspondence between the observed and simulated variables was remarkable.Keywords:cation exchange; ion transport; leaching; simulation; soil reclamationReferences:
Chi C.M., Zhao C.W., Sun X.J., Wang Z.C. (2012): Reclamation of saline-sodic soil properties and improvement of rice (Oriza sativa L.) growth and yield using desulfurized gypsum in the west of Songnen Plain, northeast China. Geoderma, 187-188, 24-30 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2012.04.005Chun S, Nishiyama M, Matsumoto S (2001): Sodic soils reclaimed with by-product from flue gas desulfurization: corn production and soil quality. Environmental Pollution, 114, 453-459 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0269-7491(00)00226-8Gonçalves Maria C., Šimůnek Jirka, Ramos Tiago B., Martins José C., Neves Maria J., Pires Fernando P. (2006): Multicomponent solute transport in soil lysimeters irrigated with waters of different quality. Water Resources Research, 42, n/a-n/a https://doi.org/10.1029/2005WR004802Kumar D., Singh B. (2003): The use of coal fly ash in sodic soil reclamation. Land Degradation & Development, 14: 285–299.Li Fahu, Keren Rami (2008): Native CaCO 3 Mineral Dissolution and Its Contribution to Sodic Calcareous Soil Reclamation Under Laboratory Conditions. Arid Land Research and Management, 22, 1-15 https://doi.org/10.1080/15324980701784225Li Q.S., Li Q.S., Willardson L.S., Li L.X., Liu C.J., Wu L.Z. (2004): Amelioration of saline–sodic soil with mildly saline water in the Songnen Plain, northeast China. Soil Use and Management, 20, 439-443 https://doi.org/10.1079/SUM2004282Murtaza G., Murtaza B., Usman H.M., Ghafoor A. (2013): Amelioration of saline-sodic soil using gypsum and low quality water in following sorghum-berseem crop rotation. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 15: 640–648.Mzezewa J, Gotosa J, Nyamwanza B (2003): Characterisation of a sodic soil catena for reclamation and improvement strategies. Geoderma, 113, 161-175 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7061(02)00337-3Nayak A. K., Mishra V. K., Sharma D. K., Jha S. K., Singh C. S., Shahabuddin Mohammad, Shahid Mohammad (2013): Efficiency of Phosphogypsum and Mined Gypsum in Reclamation and Productivity of Rice–Wheat Cropping System in Sodic Soil. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 44, 909-921 https://doi.org/10.1080/00103624.2012.747601Prathapar S. A., Aslam M., Kahlown M. A., Iqbal Z., Qureshi A. S. (2005): Gypsum slotting to ameliorate sodic soils of Pakistan. Irrigation and Drainage, 54, 509-517 https://doi.org/10.1002/ird.205Qadir M., Ghafoor A., Murtaza G. (2000): Amelioration strategies for saline soils: A review. Land Degradation & Development, 11: 501–521.Qadir M., Ghafoor A., Murtaza G. (2001a): Use of saline-sodic waters through phytoremediation of calcareous saline-sodic soils. Agricultural Water Management, 50: 197–210.Qadir M., Schubert S., Ghafoor A., Murtaza G. (2001b): Amelioration strategies for sodic soils: A review. Land Degradation & Development, 12: 357–386.Qadir M., Qureshi R.H., Ahmad N. (2002): Amelioration of calcareous saline sodic soils through phytoremediation and chemical strategies. Soil Use and Management, 18, 381-385 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1475-2743.2002.tb00256.xQadir M., Qadir M., Noble A.D., Oster J.D., Schubert S., Ghafoor A. (2005): Driving forces for sodium removal during phytoremediation of calcareous sodic and saline–sodic soils: a review. Soil Use and Management, 21, 173-180 https://doi.org/10.1079/SUM2005312Ramos T.B., Šimůnek J., Gonçalves M.C., Martins J.C., Prazeres A., Castanheira N.L., Pereira L.S. (2011): Field evaluation of a multicomponent solute transport model in soils irrigated with saline waters. Journal of Hydrology, 407, 129-144 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.07.016Reading L.P., Baumgartl T., Bristow K.L., Lockington D.A. (2012a): Applying hydrus to flow in a sodic clay soil with solution composition-dependent hydraulic conductivity. Vadose Zone Journal, 11: doi 10.2136/vzj2011.0137.Reading L.P., Baumgartl T., Bristow K.L., Lockington D.A. (2012b): Hydraulic conductivity increases in a sodic clay soil in response to gypsum applications: Impacts of bulk density and cation exchange. Soil Science, 177: 165–171.Sahin U., Anapali O. (2005): A laboratory study of the effects of water dissolved gypsum application on hydraulic conductivity of saline-sodic soil under intermittent ponding conditions. Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research, 44: 297–303.Sahin Ustun, Eroğlu Seçkin, Sahin Fikrettin (2011): Microbial application with gypsum increases the saturated hydraulic conductivity of saline–sodic soils. Applied Soil Ecology, 48, 247-250 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2011.04.001Sakai Y., Matsumoto S., Sadakata M. (2004): Alkali soil reclamation with flue gas desulfurization gypsum in china and assessment of metal content in corn grains. Soil & Sediment Contamination, 13: 65–80.Seaman J.C., Chang H., Goldberg S., Šimůnek J. (2012): Reactive Transport Modeling. Vadose Zone Journal, 11, 0- https://doi.org/10.2136/vzj2012.0066Šimůnek Jiří, Suarez Donald L. (1997): Sodic Soil Reclamation Using Multicomponent Transport Modeling. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 123, 367-376 https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)0733-9437(1997)123:5(367)Šimůnek Jirí, van Genuchten Martinus Th., Šejna Miroslav (2008): Development and Applications of the HYDRUS and STANMOD Software Packages and Related Codes. Vadose Zone Journal, 7, 587- https://doi.org/10.2136/vzj2007.0077Simunek J., van Genuchten M.T., Sejna M. (2012): HYDRUS: Model use, calibration, and validation. Transactions of the ASABE, 55: 1261–1274.Singh Kripal, Singh Bajrang, Singh R.R. (2013): Effect of land rehabilitation on physicochemical and microbial properties of a sodic soil. CATENA, 109, 49-57 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2013.05.006Sivapalan S. (2005): Effect of gypsum and polyacrylamides on water turbidity and infiltration in a sodic soil. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 43, 723- https://doi.org/10.1071/SR04155Suarez D.L. (2001): Sodic soil reclamation: Modelling and field study. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 39: 1225–1246. https://doi.org/10.1071/SR00094Suarez D. L., Rhoades J. D., Lavado R., Grieve C. M. (1984): Effect of pH on Saturated Hydraulic Conductivity and Soil Dispersion1. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 48, 50- https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1984.03615995004800010009xWang Jinman, Bai Zhongke, Yang Peiling (2014): Mechanism and numerical simulation of multicomponent solute transport in sodic soils reclaimed by calcium sulfate. Environmental Earth Sciences, 72, 157-169 https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-013-2943-5Wang Jiandong, Gong Shihong, Xu Di, Juan Sui, Mu Jianxin (2013): NUMERICAL SIMULATIONS AND VALIDATION OF WATER FLOW AND HEAT TRANSPORT IN A SUBSURFACE DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM USING HYDRUS-2D. Irrigation and Drainage, 62, 97-106 https://doi.org/10.1002/ird.1699Wang S.J., Chen C.H., Xu X.C., Li Y.J. (2008): Amelioration of alkali soil using flue gas desulfurization byproducts: Productivity and environmental quality. Environmental Pollution, 151, 200-204 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2007.02.014Willmott Cort J. (1982): Some Comments on the Evaluation of Model Performance. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 63, 1309-1313 https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477(1982)063<1309:SCOTEO>2.0.CO;2Yazdanpanah Najme, Mahmoodabadi Majid (2013): Reclamation of calcareous saline–sodic soil using different amendments: Time changes of soluble cations in leachate. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 6, 2519-2528 https://doi.org/10.1007/s12517-011-0505-2