Pedogenesis problems on reclaimed coal mining sites

https://doi.org/10.17221/163/2020-SWRCitation:

Spasić M., Borůvka L., Vacek O., Drábek O., Tejnecký V. (2021): Pedogenesis problems on reclaimed coal mining sites. Soil and Water Res., 16: 137150.

download PDF

Open-cast coal mining presents a big global issue because of the large areas the mines occupy, which get entirely changed. Their ecosystems lose most of their functions, and a huge amount of fertile soil gets utterly destroyed. Reclamation is a process of returning the functions of the soil after the excavation is finished, most commonly achieved by establishing vegetation, which can sometimes be very difficult. This happens due to the physical, chemical and biological changes that occur on these sites, which are described in this paper. Also, some directions for mitigating these problems are given. Once the vegetation is successfully introduced, natural cycles that were compromised by the mining are established once again, and the process of soil formation begins. Some trends and problems related to pedogenesis research on reclaimed mine sites are presented and discussed, along with presumptions of how the process of soil formation evolves on afforested clayey Technosols of central Europe. The potential future research which would confirm these presumptions is discussed, with the emphasis on the need of research performed on older reclamation sites, as well as sites with similar ecological conditions and different tree species cover.

References:
Ahirwal J., Kumar A., Pietrzykowski M., Maiti S.K. (2018): Reclamation of coal mine spoil and its effect on Technosol quality and carbon sequestration: a case study from India. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 25: 27992–28003.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-018-2789-1
 
Alday J.G., Marrs R.H., Martínez Ruiz C. (2011): Vegetation succession on reclaimed coal wastes in Spain: The influence of soil and environmental factors. Applied Vegetation Science, 14: 84–94.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-109X.2010.01104.x
 
Anderson J.D., Ingram L.J., Stahl P.D. (2008): Influence of reclamation management practices on microbial biomass carbon and soil organic carbon accumulation in semiarid mined lands of Wyoming. Applied Soil Ecology, 40: 387–397.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2008.06.008
 
Baldrian P., Trögl J., Frouz J., Šnajdr J., Valášková V., Merhautová V., Cajthaml T., Herinková J. (2008): Enzyme activities and microbial biomass in topsoil layer during spontaneous succession in spoil heaps after brown coal mining. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 40: 2107–2115.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2008.02.019
 
Bandyopadhyay S., Rana V., Maiti S.K. (2018): Chronological variation of metals in reclaimed coal mine soil and tissues of Eucalyptus hybrid tree after 25 years of reclamation, Jharia coal field (India). Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 101: 604–610.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-018-2466-6
 
Banning N.C., Grant C.D., Jones D.L., Murphy D.V. (2008): Recovery of soil organic matter, organic matter turnover and nitrogen cycling in a post-mining forest rehabilitation chronosequence. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 40: 2021–2031.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2008.04.010
 
Barry Phelps L., Holland L. (1987): Soil compaction in topsoil replacement during mining reclamation. Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 9: 8–11.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01811110
 
Bell L.C. (2001): Establishment of native ecosystems after mining – Australian experience across diverse biogeographic zones. Ecological Engineering, 17: 179–186. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-8574(00)00157-9
 
Bendfeldt E.S., Burger J.A., Daniels W.L. (2001): Quality of amended mine soils after sixteen years. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 65: 1736–1744. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2001.1736
 
Bodlák L., Křováková K., Kobesová M., Brom J., Šťastný J., Pecharová E. (2012): SOC content – An appropriate tool for evaluating the soil quality in a reclaimed post-mining landscape. Ecological Engineering, 43: 53–59. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2011.07.013
 
Boels D., Havinga L. (1982): Physical soil degradation in the Netherlands. In: Proc. Land Use Seminar on Soil Degradation, Wageningen, Oct 13–15, 1980: 1–29.
 
Borůvka L., Kozák J. (2001a): Interpretation of soil variability on a reclaimed dumpsite. In: Soil Science: Past, Present and Future: Proc. of the Joint Meeting of the Czech Society of Soil Science and the Soil Science Society of America and International Conference of the Czech Society of Soil Science, Prague, Czech Republic, Sept 16–20, 2001: 17–19.
 
Borůvka L., Kozák J. (2001b): Geostatistical investigation of a reclaimed dumpsite soil with emphasis on aluminum. Soil and Tillage Research, 59: 115–126.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-1987(01)00165-9
 
Borůvka L., Kozák J., Drábek O. (1999): Influence of some soil properties on the content of selected Al forms in the soil of the dumpsite Lítov. Rostlinná Výroba, 45: 9–15.
 
Bradshaw A. (1997): Restoration of mined lands – Using natural processes. Ecological Engineering, 8: 255–269.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-8574(97)00022-0
 
Bradshaw A.D., Hüttl R.F. (2001): Future minesite restoration involves a broader approach. Ecological Engineering, 17: 87–90. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-8574(00)00149-X
 
Bragina P.S., Tsibart A.S., Zavadskaya M.P. (2014): Soils on overburden dumps in the forest-steppe and mountain taiga zones of the Kuzbass. Eurasian Soil Science, 47: 723–733.  https://doi.org/10.1134/S1064229314050032
 
Brenner F.J. (1979): Soil and plant characteristics as determining factors in site selection for surface coal mine reclamation. Minerals and the Environment, 1: 39–44.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02010597
 
Brenner F.J., Werner M., Pike J. (1984): Ecosystem development and natural succession in surface coal mine reclamation. Minerals and the Environment, 6: 10–22. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02072661
 
Brom J., Nedbal V., Procházka J., Pecharová E. (2012): Changes in vegetation cover, moisture properties and surface temperature of a brown coal dump from 1984 to 2009 using satellite data analysis. Ecological Engineering, 43: 45–52.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2011.03.001
 
Chaulya S.K., Singh R.S., Chakraborty M.K., Tewary B.K. (2000): Bioreclamation of coal mine overburden dumps in India. Land Contamination and Reclamation, 8: 189–199.
 
Chodak M., Niklińska M. (2010): The effect of different tree species on the chemical and microbial properties of reclaimed mine soils. Biology and Fertility of Soils, 46: 555–566.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374-010-0462-z
 
Chuman T. (2015): Restoration practices used on post mining sites and industrial deposits in the Czech Republic with an example of natural restoration of granodiorite quarries and spoil heaps. Journal of Landscape Ecology, 8: 29–46.  https://doi.org/10.1515/jlecol-2015-0007
 
Claassens S., Jansen Van Rensburg P.J., Maboeta M.S., Van Rensburg L. (2008): Soil microbial community function and structure in a post-mining chronosequence. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 194: 315–329.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-008-9719-7
 
Coppin N.J., Bradshaw A.D. (1982): Quarry Reclamation: The Establishment of Vegetation in Quarries and Open Pit Non-metal Mines. London, Mining Journal Books.
 
Dick D.P., Knicker H., Ávila L.G., Inda A.V., Giasson E., Bissani C.A. (2006): Organic matter in constructed soils from a coal mining area in southern Brazil. Organic Geochemistry, 37: 1537–1545.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2006.06.017
 
Doll E.C., Wollenhaupt N.C., Halvorson G.A., Schroeder S.A. (1984): Planning and evaluating cropland reclamation after stripmining in North Dakota. Minerals and the Environment, 6: 121–126.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02043992
 
Domínguez-Haydar Y., Castañeda C., Rodríguez-Ochoa R., Jiménez J.J. (2018): Assessment of soil fauna footprints at a rehabilitated coal mine using micromorphology and near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Geoderma, 313: 135–145.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2017.10.032
 
Dutta R.K., Agrawal M. (2003): Restoration of opencast coal mine spoil by planting exotic tree species: A case study in dry tropical region. Ecological Engineering, 21: 143–151.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2003.10.002
 
Echevarria G., Morel J.L. (2015): Technosols of mining areas. Tópicos Ci. Solo, 9: 1–20.
 
FAO (2015): Soil is a Non-renewable Resource. Rome, FAO. Available at http://www.fao.org/3/a-i4373e.pdf (accessed Feb 15, 2021)
 
Fettweis U., Bens O., Hüttl R.F. (2005): Accumulation and properties of soil organic carbon at reclaimed sites in the Lusatian lignite mining district afforested with Pinus sp. Geoderma, 129: 81–91.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2004.12.034
 
Filcheva E., Noustorova M., Gentcheva-Kostadinova S., Haigh M.J. (2000): Organic accumulation and microbial action in surface coal-mine spoils, Pernik, Bulgaria. Ecological Engineering, 15: 1–15.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-8574(99)00008-7
 
Filip Z. (2002): International approach to assessing soil quality by ecologically-related biological parameters. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 88: 169–174.
 
Free G.R., Lamb J., Carleton E.A. (1947): Compactibility of certain soils as related to organic matter and erosion. Agronomy Journal, 39: 1068–1076.  https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj1947.00021962003900120003x
 
Frouz J. (1999): Restoration of soil micoroganisms population in soils of forestry reclamated brown coal dumpsites and their significance for soil formation. Ochrana Přírody, 5: 157–159. (in Czech)
 
Frouz J., Nováková A. (2005): Development of soil microbial properties in topsoil layer during spontaneous succession in heaps after brown coal mining in relation to humus microstructure development. Geoderma, 129: 54–64.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2004.12.033
 
Frouz J., Keplin B., Pižl V., Tajovský K., Starý J., Lukešová A., Nováková A., Balík V., Háněl L., Materna J., Düker C., Chalupský J., Rusek J., Heinkele T. (2001): Soil biota and upper soil layer development in two contrasting post-mining chronosequences. Ecological Engineering, 17: 275–284.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-8574(00)00144-0
 
Frouz J., Elhottová D., Pižl V., Tajovský K., Šourková M., Picek T., Malý S. (2007a): The effect of litter quality and soil faunal composition on organic matter dynamics in post-mining soil: A laboratory study. Applied Soil Ecology, 37: 72–80.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2007.04.001
 
Frouz J., Pižl V., Tajovský K. (2007b): The effect of earthworms and other saprophagous macrofauna on soil microstructure in reclaimed and un-reclaimed post-mining sites in Central Europe. European Journal of Soil Biology, 43 (Supplement 1): S184–S189.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejsobi.2007.08.033
 
Frouz J., Livečková M., Albrechtová J., Chroňáková A., Cajthaml T., Pižl V., Háněl L., Starý J., Baldrian P., Lhotáková Z., Šimáčková H., Cepáková Š. (2013): Is the effect of trees on soil properties mediated by soil fauna? A case study from post-mining sites. Forest Ecology and Management, 309: 87–89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foreco.2013.02.013
 
Gast M., Schaaf W., Scherzer J., Wilden R., Schneider B.U., Hüttl R.F. (2001): Element budgets of pine stands on lignite and pyrite containing mine soils. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 73: 63–74.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0375-6742(01)00188-1
 
Gerke H.H., Hangen E., Schaaf W., Hüttl R.F. (2001): Spatial variability of potential water repellency in a lignitic mine soil afforested with Pinus nigra. Geoderma, 102: 255–274.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7061(01)00036-2
 
Ghose M. (2001): Management of topsoil for geo-environmental reclamation of coal mining areas. Environmental Geology, 40: 1405–1410.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s002540100321
 
Ghose M.K., Majee S.R. (2007): Characteristics of hazardous airborne dust around an Indian surface coal mining area. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 130: 17–25.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-006-9448-6
 
Ghosh A.B., Bajaj J.C., Hassan R., Singh D. (1983): Soil and Water Testing Methods – A Laboratory Manual. New Delhi, IARI: 31–36.
 
Giri D.D., Shukla P.N., Ritu S., Kumar A., Pandey K.D. (2013): Substrate utilization of stress tolerant methylotrophs isolated from revegetated heavy metal polluted coalmine spoil. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 29: 635–643. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11274-012-1219-7
 
Haigh M.J., Gentcheva-Kostadinova S.V. (2002): Ecological erosion control on coal-spoil banks: An evaluation. Ecological Engineering, 18: 371–377.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-8574(01)00087-8
 
Hamidović S., Cvijović G.G., Waisi H., Životić Lj., Janković Šoja S., Raičević V., Lalević B. (2020): Response of microbial community composition in soils affected by coal mine exploitation. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 192: 364.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-020-08305-2
 
Hartmann R., Schneider B.U., Gast C., Keplin B., Hüttl R.F. (1999): Effects of N-enriched rock powder on soil chemistry, organic matter formation and plant nutrition in lignite-poor sandy mine spoil in the forest reclamation practice. Plant and Soil, 213: 99–115.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1004638203867
 
Heděnec P., Vindušková O., Kukla J., Šnajdr J., Baldrian P., Frouz J. (2017): Enzyme activity of topsoil layer on reclaimed and unreclaimed post-mining sites. Biological Communications, 62: 19–25.  https://doi.org/10.21638/11701/spbu03.2017.103
 
Helingerová M., Frouz J., Šantrůčková H. (2010): Microbial activity in reclaimed and unreclaimed post-mining sites near Sokolov (Czech Republic). Ecological Engineering, 36: 768–776.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2010.01.007
 
Hendrychová M. (2008): Reclamation success in post-mining landscapes in th e Czech Republic: A review of pedological and biological studies. Journal of Landscape Studies, 1: 63–78.
 
Hodačová D., Prach K. (2003): Spoil heaps from brown coal mining: technical reclamation versus spontaneous revegetation. Restoration Ecology, 11: 385–391.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1526-100X.2003.00202.x
 
Hoth N., Feldmann H., Rinker A., Glombitza F., Häfner F. (2005): Reductive processes within lignite dumps – Chance of a long-term natural attenuation process. Geoderma, 129: 19–31.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2004.12.035
 
Huggett R.J. (1998): Soil chronosequences, soil development, and soil evolution: a critical review. Catena, 32: 155–172. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0341-8162(98)00053-8
 
Huot H., Simonnot M., Marion P., Yvon J., Donato P. De (2013): Characteristics and potential pedogenetic processes of a Technosol developing on iron industry deposits. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 13: 555–568.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11368-012-0513-1
 
Hüttl R.F., Weber E. (2001): Forest ecosystem development in post-mining landscapes: A case study of the Lusatian lignite district. Naturwissenschaften, 88: 322–329.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s001140100241
 
Hüttl R.F., Gerwin W. (2005): Landscape and ecosystem development after disturbance by mining. Ecological Engineering, 24: 1–3.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2004.12.002
 
Jambhulkar H.P., Kumar M.S. (2019): Eco-restoration approach for mine spoil overburden dump through biotechnological route. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 191: 772. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-019-7873-6
 
Jenny H. (1941): Factors of Soil Formation: A System of Quantitative Pedology. New York, Dover Publications.
 
Jenny H. (1980): The Soil Resource: Origins and Behavior. New York, Springer-Verlag.
 
Kalabić D., Dražić G., Dražić N., Ikanović J. (2019): Production of agri-energy crop Miscanthus gigantheus on land degraded by power industry: SWOT analysis. Polish Journal of Environmental Studies, 28: 3243–3251. https://doi.org/10.15244/pjoes/93745
 
Kaufmann M., Tobias S., Schulin R. (2009): Quality evaluation of restored soils with a fuzzy logic expert system. Geoderma, 151: 290–302. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2009.04.018
 
Keplin B., Hüttl R. (2001): Decomposition of root litter in Pinus sylvestris L. and Pinus nigra stands on carboniferous substrates in the Lusatian lignite mining district. Ecological Engineering, 17: 285–296.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-8574(00)00145-2
 
Kim S., Mortimer P., Ostermann A. (2018): Tree species and recovery time drives soil restoration after mining: A chronosequence study. Land Degradation and Development, 29: 1738–1747.  https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.2951
 
Kříbek B., Strnad M., Boháček Z., Sýkorová I., Čejka J., Sobalík Z. (1998): Geochemistry of Miocene lacustrine sediments from the Sokolov Coal Basin (Czech Republic). International Journal of Coal Geology, 37: 207–233. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0166-5162(98)00002-0
 
Kuter N. (2013): Reclamation of Degraded Landscapes due to Opencast Mining. Advances in Landscape Architecture, IntechOpen: 823–858.
 
Lal R. (2001): Soil degradation by erosion. Land Degradation and Development, 12: 519–539. https://doi.org/10.1002/ldr.472
 
Lanham J., Sencindiver J., Skousen J. (2015): Characterization of soil developing in reclaimed Upper Freeport Coal surface mines. Southeastern Naturalist, 14: 58–64.  https://doi.org/10.1656/058.014.sp708
 
Lavelle P., Spain A.V. (2001): Soil Ecology. New York, Kluwer Academic Publishers.
 
Ličina V., Fotirić Akšić M., Tomić Z., Trajković I., Antić Mladenović S., Marjanović M., Rinklebe J. (2017): Bioassessment of heavy metals in the surface soil layer of an opencast mine aimed for its rehabilitation. Journal of Environmental Management, 186: 240–252.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2016.06.050
 
Lima A.T., Mitchell K., O’Connell D.W., Verhoeven J., Van Cappellen P. (2016): The legacy of surface mining: Remediation, restoration, reclamation and rehabilitation. Environmental Science & Policy, 66: 227–233.
 
Lindemann W.C, Lindsey D.L., Fresquez P.R. (1984): Amendment of mine spoil to increase the number and activity of microorganisms. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 48: 574–578.  https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1984.03615995004800030021x
 
Lipiec J., Hatano R. (2003): Quantification of compaction effects on soil physical properties and crop growth. Geoderma, 116: 107–136.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7061(03)00097-1
 
Lorenz K., Lal R. (2007): Stabilization of organic carbon in chemically separated pools in reclaimed coal mine soils in Ohio. Geoderma, 141: 294–301.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2007.06.008
 
Maiti S.K. (2007): Bioreclamation of coalmine overburden dumps – with special empasis on micronutrients and heavy metals accumulation in tree species. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 125: 111–122. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-006-9244-3
 
Marshall T.J., Holmes J.W., Rose C.W. (1996): Soil Physics. 3rd Ed. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
 
McCormack D.E. (1984): Legislating soil reconstruction on surface-mined land in the United States. Minerals and the Environment, 6: 154–156. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02043998
 
Mikanová O., Usťak S., Czakó A. (2009): Utilization of microbial inoculation and compost for revitalization of soils. Soil and Water Research, 4: 126–130. https://doi.org/10.17221/9/2009-SWR
 
Mohr D., Simon M., Topp W. (2005): Stand composition affects soil quality in oak stands on reclaimed and natural sites. Geoderma, 129: 45–53.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2004.12.029
 
Moreno-de las Heras M. (2009): Development of soil physical structure and biological functionality in mining spoils affected by soil erosion in a Mediterranean-Continental environment. Geoderma, 149: 249–256.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2008.12.003
 
Moreno-de las Heras M., Merino-Martín L., Nicolau J. M. (2009): Effect of vegetation cover on the hydrology of reclaimed mining soils under Mediterranean-Continental climate. Catena, 77: 39–47.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2008.12.005
 
Mummey D.L., Stahl P.D., Buyer J.S. (2002a): Microbial biomarkers as an indicator of ecosystem recovery following surface mine reclamation. Applied Soil Ecology, 21: 251–259.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0929-1393(02)00090-2
 
Mummey D.L., Stahl P.D., Buyer J.S. (2002b): Soil microbiological properties 20 years after surface mine reclamation: Spatial analysis of reclaimed and undisturbed sites. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 34: 1717–1725.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0038-0717(02)00158-X
 
Naprasnikova E.V. (2008): Biological properties of soils on mine tips. Eurasian Soil Science, 41: 1314–1320.  https://doi.org/10.1134/S1064229308120090
 
Pająk M., Krzaklewski W. (2007): Selected physical properties of initial soils on the outside spoil bank of the Bełchatów brown coal mine. Journal of Forest Science, 53: 308–313.  https://doi.org/10.17221/2077-JFS
 
Paradelo R., Barral M.T. (2013): Influence of organic matter and texture on the compactability of Technosols. Catena, 110: 95–99.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2013.05.012
 
Pietrzykowski M., Krzaklewski W. (2007): An assessment of energy efficiency in reclamation to forest. Ecological Engineering, 30: 341–348. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2007.04.003
 
Raj D. (2019): Bioaccumulation of mercury, arsenic, cadmium, and lead in plants grown on coal mine soil. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment: An International Journal, 25: 659–671.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10807039.2018.1447360
 
Řehounková K., Řehounek J., Prach K. (2011): Near-natural Restoration vs. Technical Reclamation of Mining Sites in the Czech Republic. České Budějovice, University of South Bohemia in České Budějovice.
 
Remeš J., Šíša R. (2007): Biological activity of anthropogenic soils after spoil-bank forest reclamation. Journal of Forest Science, 53: 299–307. https://doi.org/10.17221/2075-JFS
 
Rimstidt D.D., Vaughan D.J. (2003): Pyrite oxidation: A state-of-the-art assessment of the reaction mechanism. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 67: 873–880.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7037(02)01165-1
 
Rincón A., Ruíz-Díez B., Fernández-Pascual M., Probanza A., Pozuelo J.M., Felipe M.R. de (2006): Afforestation of degraded soils with Pinus halepensis Mill.: Effects of inoculation with selected microorganisms and soil amendment on plant growth, rhizospheric microbial activity and ectomycorrhizal formation. Applied Soil Ecology, 34: 42–51.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2005.12.004
 
Rumpel C., Knicker H., Kögel-Knabner I., Skjemstad J.O., Hüttl R.F. (1998): Types and chemical composition of organic matter in reforested lignite-rich mine soils. Geoderma, 86: 123–142.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7061(98)00036-6
 
Rumpel C., Kögel-Knabner I., Hüttl R. (1999): Organic matter composition and degree of humification in lignite-rich mine soils under a chronosequence of pine. Plant and Soil, 213: 161–168.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1004454826537
 
Rumpel C., Kögel-Knabner I., Knicker H., Hüttl R.F. (2000): Composition and distribution of organic matter in physical fractions of a rehabilitated mine soil rich in lignite-derived carbon. Geoderma, 98: 177–192.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7061(00)00060-4
 
Santini T.C., Fey M.V. (2016): Assessment of Technosol formation and in situ remediation in capped alkaline tailings. Catena, 136: 17–29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2015.08.006
 
Sarah P. (2005): Soil aggregation response to long- and short-term differences in rainfall amount under arid and Mediterranean climate conditions. Geomorphology, 70: 1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geomorph.2005.03.007
 
Schaaf W. (2001): What can element budgets of false-time series tell us about ecosystem development on post-lignite mining sites? Ecological Engineering, 17: 241–252.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-8574(00)00142-7
 
Schaaf W. (2003): Leaching induced changes in substrate and solution chemistry of mine soil microcosms. Water, Air and Soil Pollution: Focus, 3: 139–152.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1022100713993
 
Schaaf W., Hüttl R.F. (2006): Direct and indirect effects of soil pollution by lignite mining. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution: Focus, 6: 353–364.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11267-005-9028-8
 
Schaaf W., Gast M., Wilden R. (1999): Temporal and spatial development of soil solution chemistry and element budgets in different mine soils of the Lusatian lignite mining area. Plant and Soil, 213: 169–179.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1004542205087
 
Schnitzer M., Khan S.U. (1975): Soil Organic Matter. Amsterdam, Elsevier Science.
 
Sexstone A.J., Revsbech N.P., Parkin T.B., Tiedje J.M. (1985): Direct measurement of oxygen profiles and denitrification rates in soil aggregates. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 49: 645–651. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1985.03615995004900030024x
 
Sheoran A., Sheoran V., Poonia P. (2008): Rehabilitation of mine degraded land by metallophytes. Mining Engineers Journal, 10: 11–16.
 
Sheoran V., Sheoran A.S., Poonia P. (2010): Soil reclamation of abandoned mine land by revegetation: A Review. International Journal of Soil, Sediment and Water, 3: 13.
 
Shrestha R.K., Lal R. (2008): Land use impacts on physical properties of 28 years old reclaimed mine soils in Ohio. Plant and Soil, 306: 249–260. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-008-9578-4
 
Sinha S., Masto R.E., Ram L.C., Selvi V.A., Srivastava N.K., Tripathi R.C., George J. (2009): Rhizosphere soil microbial index of tree species in a coal mining ecosystem. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 41: 1824–1832.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2008.11.022
 
Šourková M., Frouz J., Fettweis U., Bens O., Hüttl R.F., Šantrůčková H. (2005a): Soil development and properties of microbial biomass succession in reclaimed post mining sites near Sokolov (Czech Republic) and near Cottbus (Germany). Geoderma, 129: 73–80.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2004.12.032
 
Šourková M., Frouz J., Šantrůčková H. (2005b): Accumulation of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus during soil formation on alder spoil heaps after brown-coal mining, near Sokolov (Czech Republic). Geoderma, 124: 203–214.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2004.05.001
 
Spasić M., Drábek O., Tejnecký V., Vacek O., Borůvka L. (2020): Physico-chemical properties of lignite mine reclaimed soil formed under 19 different tree species in Sokolov, Czech Republic. Mechanization in Agriculture & Conserving of the Resources, 66: 134–135.
 
Štrudl M., Borůvka L., Dimitrovský K., Kozák J. (2006): Contents of potentially risk elements in natural and reclaimed soils of the Sokolov region. Soil and Water Research, 1: 99–107.
 
Tang Q., Li L., Zhang S., Zheng L., Miao C. (2018): Characterization of heavy metals in coal gangue-reclaimed soils from a coal mining area. Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 186: 1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gexplo.2017.11.018
 
Topp W., Simon M., Kautz G., Dworschak U., Nicolini F., Prückner S. (2001): Soil fauna of a reclaimed lignite open-cast mine of the Rhineland: Improvement of soil quality by surface pattern. Ecological Engineering, 17: 307–322.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-8574(00)00147-6
 
Tropek R., Kadlec T., Hejda M., Kocarek P., Skuhrovec J., Malenovsky I., Vodka S., Spitzer L., Banar P., Konvicka M. (2012): Technical reclamations are wasting the conservation potential of post-mining sites. A case study of black coal spoil dumps. Ecological Engineering, 43: 13–18.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoleng.2011.10.010
 
Ussiri D.A.N., Jacinthe P.A., Lal R. (2014): Methods for determination of coal carbon in reclaimed minesoils: A review. Geoderma, 214–215: 155–167. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2013.09.015
 
Uzarowicz L., Skiba S. (2011): Technogenic soils developed on mine spoils containing iron sulphides: Mineral transformations as an indicator of pedogenesis. Geoderma, 163: 95–108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2011.04.008
 
Valla M., Kozák J., Ondráček V. (2000): Vulnerability of aggregates separated from selected anthrosols developed on reclaimed dumpsites. Rostlinná Výroba, 46: 563–568.
 
Vega F.A., Covelo E.F., Andrade M.L., Marcet P. (2004): Relationships between heavy metals content and soil properties in minesoils. Analytica Chimica Acta, 524: 141–150. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aca.2004.06.073
 
Vetterlein D., Hüttl R.F. (1999): Can applied organic matter fulfil similar functions as soil organic matter? Risk-benefit analysis for organic matter application as a potential strategy for rehabilitation of disturbed ecosystems. Plant and Soil, 213: 1–10. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1004681506901
 
Vetterlein D., Bergmann C., Hüttl R.F. (1999): Phosphorus availability in different types of open-cast mine spoil and the potential impact of organic matter application. Water, 1991: 189–194.
 
Vindušková O., Frouz J. (2013): Soil carbon accumulation after open-cast coal and oil shale mining in Northern Hemisphere: A quantitative review. Environmental Earth Sciences, 69: 1685–1698. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-012-2004-5
 
Vitousek P.M., Reiners W. (1975): Ecosystem succession and nutrient retention: A hypothesis. Bioscience, 25: 376–381. https://doi.org/10.2307/1297148
 
Wali M.K. (1999): Ecological succession and the rehabilitation of disturbed terrestrial ecosystems. Plant and Soil, 213: 195–220. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1004475206351
 
Wang X., Yost R.S., Linquist B.A. (2001): Soil aggregate size affects phosphorus desorption from highly weathered soils and plant growth. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 65: 139–146.  https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2001.651139x
 
Wanner M., Dunger W. (2001): Biological activity of soils from reclaimed open-cast coal mining areas in Upper Lusatia using testate amoebae (protists) as indicators. Ecological Engineering, 17: 323–330.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-8574(00)00148-8
 
Waschkies C., Hüttl R.F. (1999): Microbial degradation of geogenic organic C and N in mine spoils. Plant and Soil, 213: 221–230.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1004539502221
 
Wiegleb G., Felinks B. (2001): Primary succession in post-mining landscapes of Lower Lusatia – Chance or necessity. Ecological Engineering, 17: 199–217.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-8574(00)00159-2
 
Wilden R., Schaaf W., Hüttl R.F. (1999): Soil solution chemistry of two reclamation sites in the Lusatian lignite mining district as influenced by organic matter application. Plant and Soil, 213: 231–240.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1004421501867
 
Wilden R., Schaaf W., Hüttl R.F. (2001): Element budgets of two afforested mine sites after application of fertilizer and organic residues. Ecological Engineering, 17: 253–273.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-8574(00)00143-9
 
Wu L., Vomocil J.A., Childs S.W. (1990): Pore size, particle size, aggregate size, and water retention. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 54: 952–956. https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1990.03615995005400040002x
 
Zellmer S.D., Wilkey M.L. (1979): A reclamation demonstration project at an abandoned deep mine. Minerals and the Environment, 1: 57–63.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02010718
 
Zharikova E.A., Kostenkov N.M. (2014): Physicochemical properties and potassium state of the soils developed on dump rocks of coal mines. Eurasian Soil Science, 47: 26–34.  https://doi.org/10.1134/S1064229314010141
 
Zier N., Schiene R., Koch H., Fischer K. (1999): Agricultural reclamation of disturbed soils in a lignite mining area using municipal and coal wastes: the humus situation at the beginning of reclamation. Plant and Soil, 213: 241–250. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1004521917709
 
download PDF

© 2021 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences | Prohlášení o přístupnosti