Distribution and accumulation of heavy metals in sediments of the northern part of mangrove in Hara Biosphere Reserve, Qeshm Island (Persian Gulf)
R. ZareZadeh, P. Rezaee, R. Lak, M. Masoodi, M. Ghorbanihttps://doi.org/10.17221/16/2016-SWRCitation:ZareZadeh R., Rezaee P., Lak R., Masoodi M., Ghorbani M. (2017): Distribution and accumulation of heavy metals in sediments of the northern part of mangrove in Hara Biosphere Reserve, Qeshm Island (Persian Gulf). Soil & Water Res., 12: 86-95.
The mangrove of Hara Biosphere Reserve, stretching over 100 thousand hectares in the southern coast of Iran and in the northwest of Qeshm Island, belongs to the most important and largest mangroves in the Middle East. Twenty sedimentary samples were collected and concentrations of seven heavy metals were investigated in order to assess the extent of pollution distribution in this area and to discuss the origin of these contaminants in sediments. The mean heavy metal concentrations followed the scheme: Fe > Cr > Ni > Zn > Cu > Pb > Cd. Based on the geo-accumulation index, the Fe, Pb, Zn, and Cu levels were graded as non-contamination, the levels of Cr and Ni as non-contamination to moderate contamination, while those of Cd as moderate contamination to moderate to heavy contamination. According to the enrichment factor and quantification of contamination calculations, Cu, Pb, and Zn were derived mainly from natural processes and exposure of material from the Earth’s crust, while the increased values of Cd, Ni, and Cr were ascribed to anthropogenic activities. The ecological risk of heavy metals was moderate, largely due to Cd contamination. The elevated values identified for Cd, Ni, and Cr are supposingly associated with activities including human refuse, shipping, transportation, fuel smuggling, and industrial wastewater discharges from factories located around Hara Biosphere Reserve (e.g. Al-Mahdi aluminum factory, lead and zinc Qeshm factory, and Hormozgan cement factory).Keywords:
anthropogenic; contamination; ecological risk; pollution; sedimentsReferences:
Adami G., Barbieri P., Reisenhofer E. (2000): An improved index for monitoring metal pollutants in surface sediments. Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry, 77: 189–197.Adamo P., Arienzo M., Imperato M., Naimo D., Nardi G., Stanzione D. (2005): Distribution and partition of heavy metals in surface and sub-surface sediments of Naples city port. Chemosphere, 61, 800-809 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.04.001Akoto O., Bruce T., Darko G. (2008): Heavy metals pollution profiles in streams serving the Owabi Reservoir. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, 2: 354–359.Asaah V.A., Abimbola A.F., Suh C.E. (2006): Heavy metal concentrations and distribution in surface soils of the Bassa industrial zone 1, Douala, Cameroon. Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, 31: 147–158.Dehghani M., Farshchi P., Danekar A., Karami M., Aleshikh A. (2010): Recreation value of Hara Biosphere Reserve using willingness-to-pay method. International Journal of Environmental Research, 4: 271–280.El-Said Ghada F., Youssef Doaa H. (2013): Ecotoxicological impact assessment of some heavy metals and their distribution in some fractions of mangrove sediments from Red Sea, Egypt. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185, 393-404 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-012-2561-9García E.M., Cruz-Motta J.J., Farina O., Bastidas C. (2008): Anthropogenic influences on heavy metals across marine habitats in the western coast of Venezuela. Continental Shelf Research, 28, 2757-2766 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.csr.2008.09.020Ghrefat Habes A., Abu-Rukah Yousef, Rosen Marc A. (2011): Application of geoaccumulation index and enrichment factor for assessing metal contamination in the sediments of Kafrain Dam, Jordan. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 178, 95-109 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-010-1675-1González Humberto, Brügmann Lutz (1991): Heavy Metals in Littoral Deposits Off Havana City, Cuba. Chemistry and Ecology, 5, 171-179 https://doi.org/10.1080/02757549108035978González-Macías C., Schifter I., Lluch-Cota D. B., Méndez-Rodríguez L., Hernández-Vázquez S. (2006): Distribution, Enrichment and Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Coastal Sediments of Salina Cruz Bay, México. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 118, 211-230 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-006-1492-8Hakanson Lars (1980): An ecological risk index for aquatic pollution control.a sedimentological approach. Water Research, 14, 975-1001 https://doi.org/10.1016/0043-1354(80)90143-8Ismail A., Naji A. (2011): Assessment of metals contamination in Klang river surface sediments by using different indexes. Environment Asia, 4: 30–38.Karbassi A. R, Monavari S. M., Nabi Bidhendi Gh. R., Nouri J., Nematpour K. (2008): Metal pollution assessment of sediment and water in the Shur River. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 147, 107-116 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-007-0102-8Kazemi Ali, Bakhtiari Alireza Riyahi, Kheirabadi Nabiallah, Barani Hashm, Haidari Behnam (2012): Distribution Patterns of Metals Contamination in Sediments Based on Type Regional Development on the Intertidal Coastal Zones of the Persian Gulf, Iran. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 88, 100-103 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-011-0412-yKhuzestani Reza Bashiri, Souri Bubak (2013): Evaluation of heavy metal contamination hazards in nuisance dust particles, in Kurdistan Province, western Iran. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 25, 1346-1354 https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-0742(12)60147-8Krauskopf K.B., Bird D.K. (1967): Introduction to Geochemistry. McGraw-Hill, New York.Kumar Goutam, Kumar Manoj, Ramanathan A. L. (2015): Assessment of heavy metal contamination in the surface sediments in the mangrove ecosystem of Gulf of Kachchh, West Coast of India. Environmental Earth Sciences, 74, 545-556 https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-015-4062-yMacDonald D. D., Ingersoll C. G., Berger T. A. (2000): Development and Evaluation of Consensus-Based Sediment Quality Guidelines for Freshwater Ecosystems. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 39, 20-31 https://doi.org/10.1007/s002440010075MacFarlane Geoff R., Koller Claudia E., Blomberg Simon P. (2007): Accumulation and partitioning of heavy metals in mangroves: A synthesis of field-based studies. Chemosphere, 69, 1454-1464 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.04.059Abdolahpur Monikh Fazel, Safahieh Alireza, Savari Ahmad, Doraghi Abdolmajid (2013): Heavy metal concentration in sediment, benthic, benthopelagic, and pelagic fish species from Musa Estuary (Persian Gulf). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185, 215-222 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-012-2545-9Moopam (1999): Regional Organization for the Protection of the Marine Environment. Kuwait, ROPME.Muller G. (1969): Index of geoaccumulation in sediments of the Rhine river. Geo Journal, 2: 108–118.Neinavaz Elnaz, Karami Mahmood, Danehkar Afshin (2011): Investigation of Great Egret (Casmerodius albus) breeding success in Hara Biosphere Reserve of Iran. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 179, 301-307 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-010-1737-4Nowrouzi Mohsen, Pourkhabbaz Alireza, Rezaei Mohammadreza (2012): Bioaccumulation and Distribution of Metals in Sediments and Avicenna marina Tissues in the Hara Biosphere Reserve, Iran. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 89, 799-804 https://doi.org/10.1007/s00128-012-0751-3Parvaresh Hossein, Abedi Zahra, Farshchi Parvin, Karami Mahmood, Khorasani Nematullah, Karbassi Abdolreza (2011): Bioavailability and Concentration of Heavy Metals in the Sediments and Leaves of Grey Mangrove, Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh, in Sirik Azini Creek, Iran. Biological Trace Element Research, 143, 1121-1130 https://doi.org/10.1007/s12011-010-8891-ySHAJAN Kuttickat Paul (2001): Geochemistry of bottom sediments from a river-estuary-shelf mixing zone on the tropical southwest coast of India. BULLETIN OF THE GEOLOGICAL SURVEY OF JAPAN, 52, 371-382 https://doi.org/10.9795/bullgsj.52.371Rae J. (1997): Trace metals in deposited intertidal sediments. Biogeochemistry of Intertidal Sediments, 9: 16–41.Safahieh A., Abdolahpur Monikh F., Savari A. (2011): Heavy metals contamination in sediment and sole fish (Euryglossa orientalis) from Musa Estuary (Persian Gulf). World Journal of Fish and Marine Sciences, 3: 290–297.Selvaraj K, Ram Mohan V, Szefer Piotr (2004): Evaluation of metal contamination in coastal sediments of the Bay of Bengal, India: geochemical and statistical approaches. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 49, 174-185 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2004.02.006TUREKIAN KARL K., WEDEPOHL KARL HANS (1961): Distribution of the Elements in Some Major Units of the Earth's Crust. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 72, 175- https://doi.org/10.1130/0016-7606(1961)72[175:DOTEIS]2.0.CO;2Udechukwu Bede Emeka, Ismail Ahmad, Zulkifli Syaizwan Zahmir, Omar Hishamuddin (2015): Distribution, mobility, and pollution assessment of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, and Fe in intertidal surface sediments of Sg. Puloh mangrove estuary, Malaysia. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 22, 4242-4255 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-014-3663-4Wang Wenfeng, Qin Yong, Song Dangyu, Wang Kexing (2008): Column leaching of coal and its combustion residues, Shizuishan, China. International Journal of Coal Geology, 75, 81-87 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.coal.2008.02.004Wang Yutao, Qiu Qiu, Xin Guorong, Yang Zhongyi, Zheng Jing, Ye Zhihong, Li Shaoshan (2013): Heavy metal contamination in a vulnerable mangrove swamp in South China. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 185, 5775-5787 https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-012-2983-4Zarei Iman, Pourkhabbaz Alireza, Khuzestani Reza Bashiri (): An assessment of metal contamination risk in sediments of Hara Biosphere Reserve, southern Iran with a focus on application of pollution indicators. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, , - https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-014-3839-xZhao Lili, You Weibin, Hu Haiqing, Hong Wei, LIAO Xiaojuan, Xiao Shihong, Wang Ren, Cai Jinbiao, Fan Xuncheng, Tan Yong, He Dongjin (2015): Spatial distribution of heavy metals (Cu, Pb, Zn, and Cd) in sediments of a coastal wetlands in eastern Fujian, China. Journal of Forestry Research, 26, 703-710 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11676-015-0063-7