Assessment of trace and heavy metal distribution by four sequential extraction procedures in a contaminated soil

https://doi.org/10.17221/20/2012-SWRCitation:He Q., Ren Y., Mohamed I., Ali M., Hassan W., Zeng F. (2013): Assessment of trace and heavy metal distribution by four sequential extraction procedures in a contaminated soil. Soil & Water Res., 8: 71-76.
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Four sequential extraction procedures (Sposito, Tessier, Silveira and Bureau Communautaire de Reference (BCR)) were used to evaluate the distribution of some metals (Fe, Cu, Cd and Zn) in a contaminated soil around a mining area. The results showed that Fe and Zn were mainly recovered in the recalcitrant soil fractions, while Cd was primarily localized in the exchangeable fraction. Soil Cu was highly associated with organic matter fraction. The amorphous Fe fraction in Silveira could be recognized as part of the Fe-Mn oxide fraction in Tessier and BCR procedures, while the crystalline Fe oxide fraction was classified into the residual fraction in Sposito, BCR and Tessier schemes. Although the same reagent was used to extract target fraction, less carbonate-bound Cu, Cu and Zn were extracted in Tessier procedure as compared to Silveira method, while Tessier scheme yielded a higher proportion of Fe, Cu and Zn in the Fe-Mn oxide fraction than BCR method. Due to the lack of uniformity of experimental conditions and the differences in extraction reagents, the extraction efficiency of metal species varied with the sequential extraction schemes. Therefore, care should be taken when comparing the results obtained by different sequential extraction procedures.
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