Soil aggregation and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as indicators of slope rehabilitation in the São Francisco River basin (Brazil)

https://doi.org/10.17221/23/2015-SWRCitation:Kimura A.C., Scotti M.R. (2016): Soil aggregation and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as indicators of slope rehabilitation in the São Francisco River basin (Brazil). Soil & Water Res., 11: 114-123.
download PDF
Anthropogenic activity along the Velhas River (São Francisco River basin) has destabilized the banks of the river channel across an urban fragment. To improve the physical stabilization, the base of the slope was stabilized with urban construction waste. After this, the slope was revegetated with native species and arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF) inoculation was applied with a successfully restoration of the vegetative cover and ecological functions. This study aims to evaluate the role of the AMF population in the soil aggregation and stabilization of the revegetated slope. The soil aggregation was higher at the experimental site than at the disturbed site, especially under the AMF inoculation. The aggregates improvement was accompanied by an increase of soil humic acid and glomalin contents 24 months after the transplantation despite a flood impact 12 months after the transplantation. A scatter plot based on Principal Component Analysis of aggregates Showed that the preserved site samples clustered with most of those from experimental site. However, some samples from experimetal site were found between those from preserved and disturbed sites. This result shows that the recovering site is evolving toward the conditions of the preserved site and that the rehabilitation process is in an intermediate phase related to the aggregate formation. The AMF inoculation of woody species was indicated in the rehabilitation procedures.
References:
An Shaoshan, Mentler Axel, Mayer Herwig, Blum Winfried E.H. (2010): Soil aggregation, aggregate stability, organic carbon and nitrogen in different soil aggregate fractions under forest and shrub vegetation on the Loess Plateau, China. CATENA, 81, 226-233  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2010.04.002
 
Barthès Bernard, Roose Eric (2002): Aggregate stability as an indicator of soil susceptibility to runoff and erosion; validation at several levels. CATENA, 47, 133-149  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0341-8162(01)00180-1
 
Bradford Marion M. (1976): A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Analytical Biochemistry, 72, 248-254  https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(76)90527-3
 
Dabin B. (1971): Study of extrction of humic sol organic matter. Science du Sol, 1: 47–63. (in French)
 
EDWARDS A. P., BREMNER J. M. (1967): DISPERSION OF SOIL PARTICLES BY SONIC VIBRATION1. Journal of Soil Science, 18, 47-63  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.1967.tb01487.x
 
EMBRAPA (1997): Manual of soil analysis methods. Rio de Janeiro, EMBRAPA. (in Portuguese)
 
Eynard A., Schumacher T. E., Lindstrom M. J., Malo D. D. (2004): Porosity and Pore-Size Distribution in Cultivated Ustolls and Usterts. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 68, 1927-  https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2004.1927
 
Gerdemann J.W., Nicolson T.H. (1963): Spores of mycorrhizal Endogone species extracted from soil by wet sieving and decanting. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 46, 235-244  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0007-1536(63)80079-0
 
Glazebrook Helen S., Robertson Alistar I. (1999): The effect of flooding and flood timing on leaf litter breakdown rates and nutrient dynamics in a river red gum ( Eucalyptus camaldulensis ) forest. Austral Ecology, 24, 625-635  https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1442-9993.1999.00992.x
 
Godim Filho J.G.C., Formiga K.T.M., Duarte R.X.M., Sugai M.R.V.B. (2004): Flooding analysis of São Francisco basin in 2004. Annals of the brazilian symposium on natural desasters. Brasileiro sobre Desastres Naturais, 1: 524–538. (in Portuguese)
 
Harner Mary J., Opitz Nora, Geluso Keith, Tockner Klement, Rillig Matthias C. (2011): Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on developing islands within a dynamic river floodplain: an investigation across successional gradients and soil depth. Aquatic Sciences, 73, 35-42  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00027-010-0157-4
 
Kemper W.D., Rosenau R.C. (1986): Aggregate stability and size distribution. In: Klute A. (ed.): Methods of Soil Analysis. Madison, American Society of Agronomy: 499–509.
 
King Elizabeth G., Hobbs Richard J. (2006): Identifying Linkages among Conceptual Models of Ecosystem Degradation and Restoration: Towards an Integrative Framework. Restoration Ecology, 14, 369-378  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-100X.2006.00145.x
 
Morton J.B. (1988): Taxonomy of VAM fungi: Classification, nomenclature, and identification. Mycotaxon, 32: 267–324.
 
Nichols Kristine A., Millar James (2013): Glomalin and Soil Aggregation under Six Management Systems in the Northern Great Plains, USA. Open Journal of Soil Science, 03, 374-378  https://doi.org/10.4236/ojss.2013.38043
 
Nilaweera N. S., Nutalaya P. (1999): Role of tree roots in slope stabilisation. Bulletin of Engineering Geology and the Environment, 57, 337-342  https://doi.org/10.1007/s100640050056
 
Piccolo A., Mbagwu J. S. C. (1994): Humic Substances and Surfactants Effects on the Stability of Two Tropical Soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 58, 950-  https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1994.03615995005800030044x
 
Reubens Bert, Poesen Jean, Danjon Frédéric, Geudens Guy, Muys Bart (2007): The role of fine and coarse roots in shallow slope stability and soil erosion control with a focus on root system architecture: a review. Trees, 21, 385-402  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00468-007-0132-4
 
Rillig M.C., Ramsey P.W., Morris S., Eldor A.P. (2003): Glomalin, an arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungal soil protein, responds to land-use change. Plant and Soil, 253: 293–299.  https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024807820579
 
Rillig M.C., Mardatin N.F., Leifheit E., Antunes P.M. (2010): Mycelium of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increases soil water repellency and is sufficient to maintain water-stable soil aggregates. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 42: 1189–1191.
 
Rokosch Abby E., Bouchard Virginie, Fennessy Siobhan, Dick Richard (2009): The use of soil parameters as indicators of quality in forested depressional wetlands. Wetlands, 29, 666-677  https://doi.org/10.1672/08-150.1
 
Scotti Maria Rita, Corr�a Eduardo Jos� A. (2004): Growth and litter decomposition of woody species inoculated with rhizobia and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in Semiarid Brazil. Annals of Forest Science, 61, 87-95  https://doi.org/10.1051/forest:2003088
 
Šimanský V. (2011): Soil structure of Haplic Luvisol as influenced by tillage and crop residues ploughing. Acta Phytotechnica et Zootechnica, 14: 27–29.
 
Šimanský V., Bajčan D. (2014): Stability of soil aggregates and their ability of carbon sequestration. Soil and Water Research, 9: 111–118.
 
Six J, Elliott E.T, Paustian K (2000): Soil macroaggregate turnover and microaggregate formation: a mechanism for C sequestration under no-tillage agriculture. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 32, 2099-2103  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0038-0717(00)00179-6
 
Somasegaran P., Hoben H.J. (1985): Methods in Legume-Rhizobium Technology. Hawaii, Niftal USAID.
 
Spaccini Riccardo, Piccolo Alessandro (2009): Molecular characteristics of humic acids extracted from compost at increasing maturity stages. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 41, 1164-1172  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2009.02.026
 
Stevenson F.J. (1994): Humus Chemistry: Genesis, Composition, Reactions. New York, John Wiley & Sons.
 
Stoddard John L., Larsen David P., Hawkins Charles P., Johnson Richard K., Norris Richard H. (2006): SETTING EXPECTATIONS FOR THE ECOLOGICAL CONDITION OF STREAMS: THE CONCEPT OF REFERENCE CONDITION. Ecological Applications, 16, 1267-1276  https://doi.org/10.1890/1051-0761(2006)016[1267:SEFTEC]2.0.CO;2
 
Toledo J.M., Schultze-Kraft R. (1982): Methods of agronomic evaluation for tropical pastures. In: Toledo J.M. (ed.): Manual for Agronomic Evaluation. International Cooperation for Tropical Pastures Evaluation (RIEPT). Cali, International Center for Tropical Agiculture (CIAT): 91–110. (in Spanish)
 
Vance E.D., Brookes P.C., Jenkinson D.S. (1987): An extraction method for measuring soil microbial biomass C. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 19, 703-707  https://doi.org/10.1016/0038-0717(87)90052-6
 
Williams D.D. (2005): Temporary forest pools: Can we see the water for the trees? Wetlands Ecology and Management, 13: 213–233.
 
Wright Sara F., Upadhyaya Abha (1996): EXTRACTION OF AN ABUNDANT AND UNUSUAL PROTEIN FROM SOIL AND COMPARISON WITH HYPHAL PROTEIN OF ARBUSCULAR MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI. Soil Science, 161, 575-586  https://doi.org/10.1097/00010694-199609000-00003
 
Wright S.F., Upadhyaya A. (1998): A survey of soils for aggregate stability and glomalin, a glycoprotein produced by hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Plant and Soil, 198: 97–107. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1004347701584
 
download PDF

© 2020 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences