The role of surface microreliefs in influencing splash erosion: A laboratory study
J. Wu, L. Zhao, F. Wu, Z. Lihttps://doi.org/10.17221/280/2014-SWRCitation:Wu J., Zhao L., Wu F., Li Z. (2016): The role of surface microreliefs in influencing splash erosion: A laboratory study. Soil & Water Res., 11: 83-89.
The detachment and transport of soil particles from soil mass are important effects of falling raindrops on soil erosion during rainfall. The objective of this study was to determine whether soil microrelief affects the detachability and transportability of soil particles by raindrop splash. Experimental microreliefs were manually simulated by two tillage practices: shallow hoeing, contour chisel plowing, and a smooth slope served as control treatment. The experiment included three simulated rainfall intensities (1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 mm/min). A splash board was used to collect sediment splashed upslope as well as that splashed downslope. Results show that microrelief has a positive effect on detachment rate (DRt) and has a negative effect on net downslope movement rate (SPnet). With the exception of DRt of which hoe treatment was less than smooth at the rainfall of 1.0 mm/min intensity, DRt of hoe and chisel treatments were twice as high as that of smooth to other treatments. For all treatments, SPnet of hoe and chisel treatments were less than half of smooth. Regression analysis showed that DRt change with increasing rainfall intensity could be described by a power function for all treatments. The change of SPnet could be described by a logarithmic function for hoe and chisel treatments, while the change of SPnet of the smooth treatment could not be described by a logarithmic function. Statistical results suggest that DRt was significantly influenced by rainfall intensity, while SPnet was not. Conversely, SPnet was significantly influenced by soil microrelief, while DRt was not.Keywords:
detachment rate; soil erosion; splash board; raindrop impactReferences:
Al-Durrah M. M., Bradford J. M. (1982): The Mechanism of Raindrop Splash on Soil Surfaces1. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 46, 1086- https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1982.03615995004600050040xBochet E., Poesen J., Rubio J. L. (2000): Mound development as an interaction of individual plants with soil, water erosion and sedimentation processes on slopes. Earth Surface Processes and Landforms, 25, 847-867 https://doi.org/10.1002/1096-9837(200008)25:8<847::AID-ESP103>3.0.CO;2-QBradford J. M., Ferris J. E., Remley P. A. (1987): Interrill Soil Erosion Processes: II. Relationship of Splash Detachment to Soil Properties1. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 51, 1571- https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1987.03615995005100060030xDarboux F., Huang C.H. (2005): Does soil surface roughness increase or decrease water and particle transfers? Soil Science Society of America Journal, 69: 748–756.Foster G.R. (1982): Modeling the erosion process. In: Haan C.T., Johnson H.P., Brakensiek D.L. (eds): Hydrologic Modeling of Small Watersheds. St. Joseph, American Society of Agricultural Engineers: 295–380.Fu B.J., Meng Q.H., Qiu Y., Zhao W.W., Zhang Q.J., Davidson D.A. (2004): Effects of land use on soil erosion and nitrogen loss in the hilly area of the Loess Plateau, China. Land Degradation & Development, 15: 87–96.GHADIRI H., PAYNE D. (1977): RAINDROP IMPACT STRESS AND THE BREAKDOWN OF SOIL CRUMBS. Journal of Soil Science, 28, 247-258 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.1977.tb02233.xGHADIR H., PAYNE D. (1988): The formation and characteristics of splash following raindrop impact on soil. Journal of Soil Science, 39, 563-575 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.1988.tb01240.xGómez J.A., Nearing M.A. (2005): Runoff and sediment losses from rough and smooth soil surfaces in a laboratory experiment. CATENA, 59, 253-266 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2004.09.008Legout C., Leguédois S., Le Bissonnais Y., Malam Issa O. (2005): Splash distance and size distributions for various soils. Geoderma, 124, 279-292 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2004.05.006Leguédois Sophie, Planchon Olivier, Legout Cédric, Le Bissonnais Yves (2005): Splash Projection Distance for Aggregated Soils. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 69, 30- https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2005.0030L. D. Meyer (1981): How Rain Intensity Affects Interrill Erosion. Transactions of the ASAE, 24, 1472-1475 https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.34475Miura Satoru, Hirai Keizo, Yamada Tsuyoshi (2002): Transport rates of surface materials on steep forested slopes induced by raindrop splash erosion. Journal of Forest Research, 7, 201-211 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02763133Morin Joseph, Van Winkel Jeannoux (1996): The Effect of Raindrop Impact and Sheet Erosion on Infiltration Rate and Crust Formation. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 60, 1223- https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1996.03615995006000040038xNearing M. A., Bradford J. M. (1985): Single Waterdrop Splash Detachment and Mechanical Properties of Soils1. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 49, 547- https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1985.03615995004900030003xPan Chengzhong, Shangguan Zhouping (2006): Runoff hydraulic characteristics and sediment generation in sloped grassplots under simulated rainfall conditions. Journal of Hydrology, 331, 178-185 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhydrol.2006.05.011S. W. Park , J. K. Mitchell , G. D. Bubenzern (1983): Rainfall Characteristics and Their Relation to Splash Erosion. Transactions of the ASAE, 26, 0795-0804 https://doi.org/10.13031/2013.34026Planchon Olivier, Mouche Emmanuel (2010): A Physical Model for the Action of Raindrop Erosion on Soil Microtopography. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 74, 1092- https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2009.0063Poesen J., Savat J. (1981): Detachment and transportation of loose sediments by raindrop splash. CATENA, 8, 19-41 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0341-8162(81)80002-1Savat J., Poesen J. (1981): Detachment and transportation of loose sediments by raindrop splash. CATENA, 8, 1-17 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0341-8162(81)80001-XSharma P. P., Gupta S. C., Foster G. R. (1993): Predicting Soil Detachment by Raindrops. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 57, 674- https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj1993.03615995005700030007xTorri Dino, Poesen Jean (1992): The effect of soil surface slope on raindrop detachment. CATENA, 19, 561-578 https://doi.org/10.1016/0341-8162(92)90053-Evan Dijk A. I. J. M., Meesters A. G. C. A., Bruijnzeel L. A. (2002): Exponential Distribution Theory and the Interpretation of Splash Detachment and Transport Experiments. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 66, 1466- https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2002.1466Vidal Vázquez E., Vivas Miranda J.G., Paz González A. (2005): Characterizing anisotropy and heterogeneity of soil surface microtopography using fractal models. Ecological Modelling, 182, 337-353 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2004.04.012Wan Y., El-Swaify S.A., Sutherland R.A. (1996): Partitioning interrill splash and wash dynamics: a novel laboratory approach. Soil Technology, 9, 55-69 https://doi.org/10.1016/0933-3630(95)00035-6Wu T.Y., Schoenau J.J., Li F.M., Qian P.Y., Malhi S.S., Shi Y.C., Xue F.L. (2004): Influence of cultivation and fertilization on total organic carbon and carbon fractions in soils from the Loess Plateau of China. Soil & Tillage Research, 77: 59–68.Zhao Longshan, Wang Linhua, Liang Xinlan, Wang Jian, Wu Faqi (2013): Soil Surface Roughness Effects on Infiltration Process of a Cultivated Slopes on the Loess Plateau of China. Water Resources Management, 27, 4759-4771 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-013-0428-7Zhao LongShan, Liang XinLan, Wu FaQi (2014): Soil surface roughness change and its effect on runoff and erosion on the Loess Plateau of China. Journal of Arid Land, 6, 400-409 https://doi.org/10.1007/s40333-013-0246-z