Evolution of sandy soils within deflation hollows in shifting areas of sand – a case study from the Błędów Desert (Poland)
Areas of shifting sand are important places for testing the effects of abiotic and biotic factors on soil morphology and evolution, where aeolian processes cause dynamic changes in the natural environment. The main aim of the study was to determine the evolution of soils within deflation hollows in shifting sands. In the context of this purpose, representative study areas were selected: (1) a reference surface in a plantation forest with soils undisturbed by aeolian processes – one pedon, (2) an active deflation hollow – two pedons, (3) a deflation hollow stabilized by reforestation (forest planting ca. 30 and ca. 100 years ago – two pedons). Soil morphology and micromorphology as well as several physical and chemical properties were analyzed. In a deflation hollow, the studied soils are found at various stages of development, mostly characterized by a relatively rapid accumulation of soil organic matter. A well-developed buried illuvial B horizon as an ‘ortstein’ material can limit aeolian erosion to a certain depth, while above these horizons aeolian erosion and accumulation remain active. History of changes in the environment is to a substantial degree reflected in morphology and micromorphology of the studied soils.
Alexandrowiczowa Z. (1962): Sands and dune forms of Błędów Desert. Ochrona Przyrody, 28: 227–253. (in Polish)
Barrett L. R., Schaetzl R. J. (1992): An examination of podzolization near Lake Michigan using chronofunctions. Canadian Journal of Soil Science, 72, 527-541 https://doi.org/10.4141/cjss92-044
Bockheim James (2011): Distribution and Genesis of Ortstein and Placic Horizons in Soils of the USA: A Review. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 75, 994- https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2010.0214
De Coninck F. (1980): Major mechanisms in formation of spodic horizons. Geoderma, 24, 101-128 https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7061(80)90038-5
Degórski M. (2004): Regional differences of podzolic soil properties in central and Northern Europe. Soil Science Annual, 55: 59–70.
Elgersma A.M. (1998): Primary forest succession on poor sandy soils as related to site factors. Biodiversity and Conservation, 7: 193–206.https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008884418570
Fedoroff N., Courty M.-A., Guo Z. (2010): Palaeosoils and relict soils. In: Stoops G., Marcelino V., Mees F. (eds): Interpretation of Micromorphological Features of Soils and Regoliths, Amsterdam, Elsevier: 623–662.
Gee G.W., Bauder J.W. (1986): Particle size analysis. In: Klute A. (ed.): Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 1. Physical and Mineralogical Properties. 2nd Ed. Agronomy Monograph 9. Madison, American Society of Agronomy, Soil Science Society of America.
IUSS Working Group WRB (2014): World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2014. International Soil Classification System for Naming Soils and Creating Legends for Soil Maps, World Soil Resources Reports No. 106, Rome, FAO.
James P.A., Wharfe A.J. (1989): Timescales of soil development in a coastal sand dune system, Ainsdale, north-west England. In: van der Meulen F., Jungerius P.D., Visser J.H. (eds): Perspectives in Coastal Dune Management. The Hague, SPB Academic Publishing: 287–295.
Jankowski M., Sewerniak P. (2013): Soils of bare lands in the Toruń military area. In: Charzyński P., Hulisz P., Bednarek R. (eds): Technogenic Soils of Poland. Toruń, Polish Society of Soils Science: 323–343.
Jones M. L. M., Sowerby A., Williams D. L., Jones R. E. (2008): Factors controlling soil development in sand dunes: evidence from a coastal dune soil chronosequence. Plant and Soil, 307, 219-234 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11104-008-9601-9
Kabała C., Waroszewski J., Szopka K., Bogacz A. (2010): Origin, Properties and Extent of Stagnic Podzols in the Sudety Mountains. Soil Science Annual, 61: 78–92.
Kaczorek D (2003): Micromorphology, chemistry, and mineralogy of bog iron ores from Poland. CATENA, 54, 393-402 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0341-8162(03)00133-4
Kaczorek D, Sommer M, Andruschkewitsch I, Oktaba L, Czerwinski Z, Stahr K (2004): A comparative micromorphological and chemical study of “Raseneisenstein” (bog iron ore) and “Ortstein”. Geoderma, 121, 83-94 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2003.10.005
Lichter John (1998): Primary Succession and Forest Development on Coastal Lake Michigan Sand Dunes. Ecological Monographs, 68, 487- https://doi.org/10.2307/2657151
Lundström U.S, van Breemen N, Bain D (2000): The podzolization process. A review. Geoderma, 94, 91-107 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7061(99)00036-1
Maddelein D., Lust N. (1992): Soil and forest floor characteristics of Scots pine stands on drift sands. Silva Gandavensis, 57, - https://doi.org/10.21825/sg.v57i0.883
Mikkelsen Jari Hinsch, Langohr Roger, Macphail Richard I. (2007): Soilscape and land-use evolution related to drift sand movements since the bronze age in Eastern Jutland, Denmark. Geoarchaeology, 22, 155-179 https://doi.org/10.1002/gea.20162
Mokma D.L, Yli-Halla M, Lindqvist K (2004): Podzol formation in sandy soils of Finland. Geoderma, 120, 259-272 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2003.09.008
Nichols G. (2009): Sedimentology and Stratigraphy. Chichester, Wiley-Blackwell.
Rahmonov Oimahmad, Oles Wojciech (2010): Vegetation succession over an area of a medieval ecological disaster. The case of the Bledów Desert, Poland. ERDKUNDE, 64, 241-255 https://doi.org/10.3112/erdkunde.2010.03.03
Rahmonov O., Szczypek T., Wach J. (2006): The Błędów Desert (Pustynia Błędowska) – a unique phenomenon of the Polish landscape. Annales Geographice, 39: 34–41.
Sparrius Laurens B., Kooijman Annemieke M., Riksen Michel P.J.M., Sevink Jan, Chiarucci Alessandro (2013): Effect of geomorphology and nitrogen deposition on rate of vegetation succession in inland drift sands. Applied Vegetation Science, 16, 379-389 https://doi.org/10.1111/avsc.12018
Stoops G. (2003): Guidelines for Analysis and Description of Soil and Regolith Thin Section. Madison, Soil Science Society of America.
Stützer Andreas (1998): Early stages of podzolisation in young aeolian sediments, western Jutland. CATENA, 32, 115-129 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0341-8162(98)00039-3
Szczypek T., Wach J. (1989): Accumulation phases of the Quaternary deposits in the Błędów Desert based on lithological studies. Quaestiones Geographicae, 2: 137–145.
Thomas G.W. (1996): Soil pH and soil acidity. In: Sparks D.L. et al. (eds): Methods of Soil Analysis, Part 3, Chemical Methods. Madison, Soil Science Society of America: 475–490.
Van Reeuwijk L.P. (2002): Procedures for Soil Analysis. 6th Ed. Wageningen, ISRIC, FAO.
Wilson M.A., Righi D. (2010): Spodic materials. In: Stoops G., Marcelino V., Mees F. (eds): Interpretation of Micromorphological Features of Soils and Regoliths, Amsterdam, Elsevier: 251–273.
Wilson Peter (2001): Rate and nature of podzolisation in aeolian sands in the Falkland Islands, South Atlantic. Geoderma, 101, 77-86 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0016-7061(00)00091-4