In this study, batch system experiments were carried out for evaluating the capability of persulfate (PS) to remediate fuel oil contaminated soils. Remediation was performed by spiking soil samples with fuel oil and then treating the mixture with sodium PS. Different controlling factors including pH (3, 6, and 9), PS concentrations (50–500 mmol/l), metal activators (ferrous sulfate, magnetite, and MnO2), and temperature (25, 40, and 60°C) were considered. Results proved that PS oxidation is effective in fuel oil degradation. The best PS : Fe2+ molar ratios were reported 400 : 2 and 250 : 1 for silty clay and loamy sand soil samples, respectively. Lower pH was more of interest in removal of fuel oil by PS oxidation. MnO2 improved fuel oil degradation when used together with metal activators. The results showed that when MnO2 was used together with ferrous sulfate and magnetite at acidic condition (pH = 3), the removal efficiencies were the best. Increasing temperature from 25 to 60°C improved the fuel oil degradation in the PS oxidation batch system. The results showed that activating PS by using ferrous sulfate along with MnO2 at acidic condition in 60°C could increase fuel oil degradation near to 58% in silty clay soil samples, while the degradation rate for loamy sand soil samples in similar conditions was 62%.
ASTM (2007): Standard Test Method for Particle-size Analysis of Soils. Philadelphia, American Society for Testing and Materials: D422−463.
Cao S.-W., Zhu Y.-J., Ma M.-Y., Li L., Zhang L. (2008): Hierarchically Nanostructured Magnetic Hollow Spheres of Fe3O4 and γ-Fe2O3: Preparation and Potential Application in Drug Delivery. Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 112, 1851-1856 https://doi.org/10.1021/jp077468+
Chang James I., Lin Cheng-Chung (2006): A study of storage tank accidents. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, 19, 51-59 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jlp.2005.05.015
Bart (2012): TOTAL PETROLEUM HYDROCARBONS BY GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY IN COLOMBIAN WATERS AND SOILS. American Journal of Environmental Sciences, 8, 396-402 https://doi.org/10.3844/ajessp.2012.396.402
Do Si-Hyun, Jo Jeong-Hwan, Jo Young-Hoon, Lee Hong-Kyun, Kong Sung-Ho (2009): Application of a peroxymonosulfate/cobalt (PMS/Co(II)) system to treat diesel-contaminated soil. Chemosphere, 77, 1127-1131 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2009.08.061
Do Si-Hyun, Kwon Yong-Jae, Kong Sung-Ho (2010): Effect of metal oxides on the reactivity of persulfate/Fe(II) in the remediation of diesel-contaminated soil and sand. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 182, 933-936 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.06.068
Do Si-Hyun, Kwon Yong-Jae, Bang Su-Jin, Kong Sung-Ho (2013): Persulfate reactivity enhanced by Fe2O3–MnO and CaO–Fe2O3–MnO composite: Identification of composite and degradation of CCl4 at various levels of pH. Chemical Engineering Journal, 221, 72-80 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2013.01.097
Gao Yu-qiong, Gao Nai-yun, Deng Yang, Yang Yi-qiong, Ma Yan (2012): Ultraviolet (UV) light-activated persulfate oxidation of sulfamethazine in water. Chemical Engineering Journal, 195-196, 248-253 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2012.04.084
Gholami-Borujeni F., Mahvi A.H., Naseri S., Faramarzi M.A., Nabizadeh R., Alimohammadi M. (2011): Application of immobilized horseradish peroxidase for removal and detoxification of azo dye from aqueous solution. Research Journal of Chemistry and Environment, 15: 217–222.
Guo Yaoguang, Zhou Jun, Lou Xiaoyi, Liu Renlan, Xiao Dongxue, Fang Changling, Wang Zhaohui, Liu Jianshe (2014): Enhanced degradation of Tetrabromobisphenol A in water by a UV/base/persulfate system: Kinetics and intermediates. Chemical Engineering Journal, 254, 538-544 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2014.05.143
Huang Kun-Chang, Zhao Zhiqiang, Hoag George E., Dahmani Amine, Block Philip A. (2005): Degradation of volatile organic compounds with thermally activated persulfate oxidation. Chemosphere, 61, 551-560 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2005.02.032
Iakovou Eleftherios T. (2001): An interactive multiobjective model for the strategic maritime transportation of petroleum products: risk analysis and routing. Safety Science, 39, 19-29 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0925-7535(01)00022-4
Jo Young-Hoon, Do Si-Hyun, Kong Sung-Ho (2014): Persulfate activation by iron oxide-immobilized MnO2 composite: Identification of iron oxide and the optimum pH for degradations. Chemosphere, 95, 550-555 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2013.10.010
Liang Chenju, Huang Chiu-Fen, Chen Yan-Jyun (2008): Potential for activated persulfate degradation of BTEX contamination. Water Research, 42, 4091-4100 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2008.06.022
Liu C.S., Shih K., Sun C.X., Wang F. (2012): Oxidative degradation of propachlor by ferrous and copper ion activated persulfate. Science of The Total Environment, 416, 507-512 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2011.12.004
Ma Ming, Zhang Yu, Yu Wei, Shen Hao-ying, Zhang Hai-qian, Gu Ning (2003): Preparation and characterization of magnetite nanoparticles coated by amino silane. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 212, 219-226 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0927-7757(02)00305-9
Mahvi A.H., Maleki A., Rezaee R., Safari M. (2009): Reduction of humic substances in water by application of ultrasound waves and ultraviolet irradiation. Iranian Journal of Environmental Health Science & Engineering, 6: 233–240.
Maleki Afshin, Mahvi Amir Hossein, Ebrahimi Roya, Zandsalimi Yahya (2010): Study of photochemical and sonochemical processes efficiency for degradation of dyes in aqueous solution. Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering, 27, 1805-1810 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11814-010-0261-0
Minisci Francesco, Citterio Attilio, Giordano Claudio (1983): Electron-transfer processes: peroxydisulfate, a useful and versatile reagent in organic chemistry. Accounts of Chemical Research, 16, 27-32 https://doi.org/10.1021/ar00085a005
Olmez-Hanci Tugba, Arslan-Alaton Idil, Genc Bora (2013): Bisphenol A treatment by the hot persulfate process: Oxidation products and acute toxicity. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 263, 283-290 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.01.032
Pinedo J., Ibáñez R., Lijzen J.P.A., Irabien Á. (2013): Assessment of soil pollution based on total petroleum hydrocarbons and individual oil substances. Journal of Environmental Management, 130, 72-79 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2013.08.048
Samanta Sudip K, Singh Om V, Jain Rakesh K (2002): Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: environmental pollution and bioremediation. Trends in Biotechnology, 20, 243-248 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-7799(02)01943-1
Tan Chaoqun, Gao Naiyun, Deng Yang, An Na, Deng Jing (2012): Heat-activated persulfate oxidation of diuron in water. Chemical Engineering Journal, 203, 294-300 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2012.07.005
TNRCC (2001): Method 1005, Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons, Texas Natural Resource Conservation Commission, Revision 03.
Tsai T.T., Kao C.M. (2009): Treatment of petroleum-hydrocarbon contaminated soils using hydrogen peroxide oxidation catalyzed by waste basic oxygen furnace slag. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 170, 466-472 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2009.04.073
Usman M., Faure P., Ruby C., Hanna K. (2012): Application of magnetite-activated persulfate oxidation for the degradation of PAHs in contaminated soils. Chemosphere, 87, 234-240 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2012.01.001
Usman M., Tascone O., Faure P., Hanna K. (2014): Chemical oxidation of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) in contaminated soils. Science of The Total Environment, 476-477, 434-439 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.01.027
Waldemer R.H., Tratnyek P.G., Johnson R.L., Nurmi J.T. (2007): Oxidation of chlorinated ethenes by heat-activated persulfate: kinetics and products. Environmental Science & Technology, 41: 1010–1015.
Xie Xiaofang, Zhang Yongqing, Huang Weilin, Huang Shaobing (2012): Degradation kinetics and mechanism of aniline by heat-assisted persulfate oxidation. Journal of Environmental Sciences, 24, 821-826 https://doi.org/10.1016/S1001-0742(11)60844-9
Yen Chia-Hsien, Chen Ku-Fan, Kao Chih-Ming, Liang Shu-Hao, Chen Ting-Yu (2011): Application of persulfate to remediate petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil: Feasibility and comparison with common oxidants. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 186, 2097-2102 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2010.12.129
Zhao Dan, Liao Xiaoyong, Yan Xiulan, Huling Scott G., Chai Tuanyao, Tao Huan (2013): Effect and mechanism of persulfate activated by different methods for PAHs removal in soil. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 254-255, 228-235 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2013.03.056