Carbon pool in soil under organic and conventional farming systemsábová M., Pospíšilová L., Hlavinka P., Trnka M., Barančíková G., Tarasovičová Z., Takáč J., Koco Š., Menšík L., Nerušil P. (2019): Carbon pool in soil under organic and conventional farming systems. Soil & Water Res., 14: 145-152.
download PDF

Changes in the agricultural management and climatic changes within the past 25 years have had a serious impact on soil organic matter content and contribute to different carbon storage in the soil. Prediction of soil carbon pool, validation, and quantification of different models is important for sustainable agriculture in the future and for this purpose a long-term monitoring data set is required. RothC-26.3 model was applied for carbon stock simulation within two different climatic scenarios (hot-dry with rapid temperature increasing and warm-dry with less rapid temperature increasing). Ten years experimental data set have been received from conventional and organic farming of experimental plots of Mendel University School Enterprise (locality Vatín, Czech-Moravian Highland). Average annual temperature in this area is 6.9°C, average annual precipitation 621 mm, and altitude 530 m above sea level. Soil was classified as Eutric Cambisol, sandy loam textured, with middle organic carbon content. Its cumulative potential was assessed as high. Results showed linear correlation between carbon stock and climatic scenario, and mostly temperature and type of soil management has influenced carbon stock. In spite of lower organic carbon inputs under organic farming this was less depending on climatic changes. Conventional farming showed higher carbon stock during decades 2000–2100 because of higher carbon input. Besides conventional farming was more affected by temperature.


Baldock J.A., Skjemstad J.O. (1999): Soil organic carbon/soil organic matter. In: Peverill K.I., Sparow L.A., Reuter D.J. (eds.): Soil Analysis: An Interpretation Manual. Collingwood, CSIRO Publishing: 159–170.
Barančíková G. (2005): Final Report of the Fellowship of Dr. G. Barancikova within the Framework of the METAGE Project (EV/10/14A), Louvain-la-Neuve, 2005: 9.
Barančíková G., Skalský R., Koco Š., Halas J., Tarasovičová Z., Nováková M. (2014): Farm-level modelling of soil organic carbon sequestration under climate and land use change. In: Halldórsson G., Bampa F., Porsteinsdóttir A.B. (eds.): Soil Carbon Sequestration for Climate Food Security and Ecosystem Services. Luxembourg, Publications Office of the European Union: 94–100.
Bielek P., Jurčová O. (2010): Methodology for Organic Carbon Balance and Setting up the Organic Fertilization Rates for Agricultural Soils. Bratislava, Soil Conservation and Research Institute. (in Slovak)
Coleman K., Jenkinson D.S. (2005): ROTHC-26.3. A Model for the Turnover of Carbon in Soil. Model Description and Windows Users’ Guide, November 1999 Issue (modified April, 2005). Available at (accessed Jan 2018).
Coleman K., Jenkinson D.S., Crocker G.J., Grace P.R., Klír J., Körschens M., Poulton P.R., Richter D.D. (1997): Simulating trends in soil organic carbon in long-term experiments using RothC-26.3. Geoderma, 81, 29-44
Liu De Li, O'Leary Garry J., Ma Yuchun, Cowie Annette, Li Frank Yonghong, McCaskill Malcolm, Conyers Mark, Dalal Ram, Robertson Fiona, Dougherty Warwick (2016): Modelling soil organic carbon 2. Changes under a range of cropping and grazing farming systems in eastern Australia. Geoderma, 265, 164-175
Falloon P., Smith P. (2002): Simulating SOC changes in long-term experiments with RothC and CENTURY: model evaluation for a regional scale application. Soil Use and Management, 18, 101-111
Falloon Pete, Smith Pete, Coleman Kevin, Marshall Stewart (1998): Estimating the size of the inert organic matter pool from total soil organic carbon content for use in the Rothamsted carbon model. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 30, 1207-1211
Falloon P (): How important is inert organic matter for predictive soil carbon modelling using the Rothamsted carbon model?. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 32, 433-436
IUSS Working Group WRB (2015): World Reference Base for Soil Resources 2014, Update 2015, Rome, FAO. Available at (accessed Jan 2018)
Jahn R., Blume H.P., Asio V.B., Spaargaren O., Schad P. (2006): Guidelines for Soil Description, 4th Ed. Rome, FAO.
Jenkinson D.S., Hart P.B.S., Rayner J.H., Parry L.C. (1987): Modelling the turnover of organic matter in long-term experiments at Rothamsted. INTELCOL Bulletin, 15: 1–8.
Jenkinson D. S., Meredith J., Kinyamario J. I., Warren G. P., Wong M. T. F., Harkness D. D., Bol R., Coleman K. (1999): ESTIMATING NET PRIMARY PRODUCTION FROM MEASUREMENTS MADE ON SOIL ORGANIC MATTER. Ecology, 80, 2762-2773[2762:ENPPFM]2.0.CO;2
Kaczynski R., Siebiele G., Galazka R., Niedzwieck J.M., Polakova S. (2013): Assessment of Soil Organic Carbon Status and Changes in Soils of Polish-Czech Borderland. Brno, Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture. (in Czech)
Keryn P., Polglase P. (2004): Calibration of the RothC model to turnover of soil carbon under eucalypts and pines. In: 3rd Australian New Zealand Conf., Dec 5–9, 2004: 1–3. Available at (accessed Jan 2018)
King J.A., King J.A., Bradley R.I., Harrison R. (2005): Current trends of soil organic carbon in English arable soils. Soil Use and Management, 21, 189-195
Kučerík Jiří, Šmejkalová Daniela, Čechlovská Hana, Pekař Miloslav (2007): New insights into aggregation and conformational behaviour of humic substances: Application of high resolution ultrasonic spectroscopy. Organic Geochemistry, 38, 2098-2110
Lamar R., deTourdonnet S., Barz P., During R.A., Frie-linghaus M., Kolli R., Kubát J., Medveděv V., Netland J., Picard D. (2006): Prospect for conservation agriculture in northern and eastern European countries. Lesson of KASSA. Bibliotheca Fragmenta Agronomica, 11: 77–88.
Loague Keith, Green Richard E. (1991): Statistical and graphical methods for evaluating solute transport models: Overview and application. Journal of Contaminant Hydrology, 7, 51-73
Lorenz K., Lal R. (2005): The depth distribution of soil organic carbon in relation to land use and management and the potential of carbon sequestration in subsoil horizons. Advances of Agronomy, 88: 35–66.
Machmuller Megan B., Kramer Marc G., Cyle Taylor K., Hill Nick, Hancock Dennis, Thompson Aaron (2015): Emerging land use practices rapidly increase soil organic matter. Nature Communications, 6, -
Nelson D.W., Sommers L.E. (1996): Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. In: Sparks D.L. et al. (eds.): Methods of Soil Analysis. Part 3. Chemical Methods. Madison, SSSA Book Series No. 5, SSSA and ASA: 961–1010.
Němeček J. et al. (2011): Taxonomic Soil System of the Czech Republic. 2nd Ed. Prague, Czech Agricultural University Prague. (in Czech)
Pohanková Eva, Hlavinka Petr, Takáč Jozef, Žalud Zdeněk, Trnka Miroslav (2015): Calibration and Validation of the Crop Growth Model DAISY for Spring Barley in the Czech Republic. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, 63, 1177-1186
Pospíšilová L., Vlček V., Hybler V., Hábová M., Jandák J. (2016): Standard analytical methods and evaluation criteria of soil physical, agrochemical, biological and hygienic parameters. Folia Universitatis Agriculturae at Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, IX, 2016, 3.
Rötter R.P., Palosuo T., Pirttioja N.K., Dubrovsky M., Salo T., Fronzek S., Aikasalo R., Trnka M., Ristolainen A., Carter T.R. (2011): What would happen to barley production in Finland if global warming exceeded 4°C? A model-based assessment. European Journal of Agronomy, 35, 205-214
Smith P., Smith J.U., Powlson D.S., McGill W.B., Arah J.R.M., Chertov O.G., Coleman K., Franko U., Frolking S., Jenkinson D.S., Jensen L.S., Kelly R.H., Klein-Gunnewiek H., Komarov A.S., Li C., Molina J.A.E., Mueller T., Parton W.J., Thornley J.H.M., Whitmore A.P. (1997): A comparison of the performance of nine soil organic matter models using datasets from seven long-term experiments. Geoderma, 81, 153-225
SMITH JO, SMITH PETE, WATTENBACH MARTIN, ZAEHLE SONKE, HIEDERER ROLAND, JONES ROBERT J.A., MONTANARELLA LUCA, ROUNSEVELL MARK D.A., REGINSTER ISABELLE, EWERT FRANK (2005): Projected changes in mineral soil carbon of European croplands and grasslands, 1990-2080. Global Change Biology, 11, 2141-2152
SMITH JO, SMITH PETE, WATTENBACH MARTIN, GOTTSCHALK PIA, ROMANENKOV VLADIMIR A., SHEVTSOVA LUDMILA K., SIROTENKO OLEG D., RUKHOVICH DMITRY I., KOROLEVA POLINA V., ROMANENKO IRINA A., LISOVOI NICOLAI V. (2007): Projected changes in the organic carbon stocks of cropland mineral soils of European Russia and the Ukraine, 1990?2070. Global Change Biology, 13, 342-356
Smith P., Faloon P., Kutsch W.L. (2010): The role of soils in the Kyoto protocol. In: Kutsch W.L., Bahn M., Heinemeyer A. (eds.): Soil Carbon Dynamics. An Integrated Methodology. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press: 245–256.
SONG Xiang-yun, LIU Shu-tang, LIU Qing-hua, ZHANG Wen-ju, HU Chun-guang (2014): Carbon Sequestration in Soil Humic Substances Under Long-Term Fertilization in a Wheat-Maize System from North China. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 13, 562-569
Stevenson F.J. (1994): Humus Chemistry. 2nd Ed. Genesis, Composition and Reactions. New York, Wiley.
Taylor Karl E., Stouffer Ronald J., Meehl Gerald A. (2012): An Overview of CMIP5 and the Experiment Design. Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 93, 485-498
Tesařová Marta, Kudlička Petr, Pospíšilová Ľubica, Kalhotka Libor, Hrabě František (2006): Comparison of mineralisation and humification of postharvest residues of cereals in conventional and organic cropping practices. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, 54, 121-126
Viscarra Rossel R.A., Brus D.J., Lobsey C., Shi Z., McLachlan G. (2016): Baseline estimates of soil organic carbon by proximal sensing: Comparing design-based, model-assisted and model-based inference. Geoderma, 265, 152-163
Zbíral J., Honsa I. et al. (2010): Unified Working Instructions. Soil Analysis I. 3rd Ed. Brno, Central Institute for Supervising and Testing in Agriculture. (in Czech)
download PDF

© 2019 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences