In Algeria, more than 20% of irrigated soils are concerned by the problem of salinity. In the perimeter of Guelma, the results showed that the soils have low salinity despite of high electrical conductivity (1244 µS/cm) of irrigation water and increased organic matter, nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus contents. It should be noted that the soils had exhibited higher salinity and low organic matter content before starting the irrigation in 1973. The reduction in the salt content is due to the leaching of salts from percolated water after the intensive irrigation; however, the increase in the content of organic matter can be explained by the accumulation of the organic matter transported by irrigation water, conditions of waterlogging, and types of crops (vegetable/cereals). As to the quality of groundwater, nitrate is the dominant nitrogen component entering groundwater and it is very alarming that by 45% of water sources (springs, wells, and boreholes) the nitrate contents are over 50 mg/l. It is a serious problem because it serves as a drinking water supply for the local population. Moreover, this water is highly mineralized (electric conductivity > 1000 µS/cm) because of the intensive use of artificial fertilizers and to the poor quality of water irrigation. The contamination by organochlorine pesticides is below the value admitted by the WHO for water resources. Endosulfan is the most dominant active ingredient with an average concentration of 0.066 µg/l.
Costa J.L, Massone H, Martı́nez D, Suero E.E, Vidal C.M, Bedmar F (2002): Nitrate contamination of a rural aquifer and accumulation in the unsaturated zone. Agricultural Water Management, 57, 33-47 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-3774(02)00036-7
Debeiche T.H. (2002): Evolution of Water Quality (Salinity, Nitrogen and Heavy Metals) as a Result of Salt Pollution, Agricultural and Industrial. Application to the Low Plain of Seybouse. [Ph.D. Thesis.] Besancon, University of Franche-Comté. (in French)
Djeraba M. (1973): Agropedological Study of the Alluvial Plain of Guelma. Constantine, Agro-pedological Service. (in French)
Douaoui A., Hartani T. (2007): Impact of irrigation by groundwater on the degradation of lower Cheliff soils. In: Proc. Regional Workshop SIRMA, Nabeul, June 4–8, 2007. (in French)
FAO (1985): Water Quality for Agriculture. Irrigation and Drainage Paper No. 29. Rome, FAO.
Fernádez-Cirelli A., Arumí J.L., Rivera D., Boochs P.W. (2009): Environmental effects of irrigation in arid and semi-arid regions. Chilean Journal of Agriculture Research, 69 (Suppl. 1): 27–40.
V�zquez J. C. Gonz�lez, Grande J. A., Barrag�n F. J., Oca�a J. A., Torre M. L. De La (2005): Nitrate Accumulation and Other Components of the Groundwater in Relation to Cropping System in an Aquifer in Southwestern Spain. Water Resources Management, 19, 1-22 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11269-005-0129-y
Grosbellet C. (2008): Evolution and Effects of the Soil Structure by the Organic Matter Brought in Large Quantities. [Ph.D. Thesis.] Angers, University of Angers. (in French)
Herre A., Siebe C., Kaupenjoham M. (2004): Effect of irrigation water quality on organic mater, Cd and Cu mobility in soils of central Mexico. Water Science Technology, 50: 277–284.
Laraba A., Hadj Zobir S. (2009): Organic water pollution of the Seybouse river (alluvial plain of Guelma, North-east Algeria). Bulletin of Geographic Sciences No. 23, Algiers, National Institue of Mapping and Teledection. (in French)
Moreira Barradas J. M., Abdelfattah A., Matula S., Dolezal F. (2015): Effect of Fertigation on Soil Salinization and Aggregate Stability. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 141, 05014010- https://doi.org/10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0000806
Nader A. (2014): Purified Waste Water of the Ouargla Basin: Environmental Management and Risks. [Magister Thesis.] Ouargla, Université Kasdi Merbah de Ouargla. (in French)
Nelson D.W., Sommers L.E. (1982): Total carbon, organic carbon, and organic matter. In: Page A.L., Miller R.H., Keeney D.R. (eds): Methods of Soil Analysis. Madison, American Society of Agronomy Inc., Soil Science Society of America: 539–579.
Nouar T. (2007): Pollution Impact on Surface and Ground Water Resources of the Region of Guelma. [Ph.D. Thesis.] Annaba, University of Annaba. (in French)
Scott C.A., Zarazúa J.A., Levine G. (2000): Urban-wastewater Reuse for Crop Production in the Water-short Guanajuato River Basin, Mexico. Research Report 41. Colombo, International Water Management Institute: doi 10.3910/2009.047.
Simonneau P., Aubert G. (1963): The use of salt water in the Sahara. Agricultural Annals, 14: 859–872. (in French)
Šimůnek J., Sejna M., van Genuchten M.Th. (1999): The HYDRUS-2D Software for Simulating the Two-dimensional Movement of Water, Heat, and Multiple Solutes in Variably-saturated Media. Colorado, International Ground Water Modeling Center, Colorado School of Mines.
Soltner D. (2000): The bases of crop production. Vol. I: The Soil and Its Improvement. 21st Ed. Sainte-Gemmessur-Loire, Science and Agricultural Technology. (in French)
WHO (2011): Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality. Recommandations. 4th Ed. Geneva, WHO.