The influence of various agrotechnical measures on macrostructural changes in topsoil and subsoil was studied in the course of a four-year experiment. Macrostructure was evaluated according to the ability of soil aggregate to resist degradation. Three variants of soil tillage were established: ploughing to a depth of 0.22 m, reduced tillage (subsoiling to 0.35–0.40 m, and shallow disking of soil to a depth of 0.15 m). For observation, three locations were chosen in various production areas of the Czech Republic with differing soil and climatic conditions. In these locations crops were grown under the same crop rotation: rapeseed (Brassica napus L.), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), maize (Zea mays), wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), and barley (Hordeum vulgare). After four years of different tillage, a change in the water stability of soil aggregates (WSA) was evident. It was found out that reduced tillage of soil positively influenced both the WSA and the yield of the crops grown. A relationship of positive dependence between WSA, the content of humus substances, and cation exchange capacity of soil was also found. According to the obtained results, for agricultural practice a classification scale of structural quality was proposed on the basis of statistics of one variable (average, its mean error and distribution normality).
Abiven Samuel, Menasseri Safya, Chenu Claire (2009): The effects of organic inputs over time on soil aggregate stability – A literature analysis. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 41, 1-12 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.soilbio.2008.09.015
Alletto Lionel, Coquet Yves, Justes Eric (2011): Effects of tillage and fallow period management on soil physical behaviour and maize development. Agricultural Water Management, 102, 74-85 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agwat.2011.10.008
An Shaoshan, Mentler Axel, Mayer Herwig, Blum Winfried E.H. (2010): Soil aggregation, aggregate stability, organic carbon and nitrogen in different soil aggregate fractions under forest and shrub vegetation on the Loess Plateau, China. CATENA, 81, 226-233 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2010.04.002
Annabi M., Houot S., Francou C., Poitrenaud M., Bissonnais Y. Le (2007): Soil Aggregate Stability Improvement with Urban Composts of Different Maturities. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 71, 413- https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2006.0161
Badalíková et al. (2011): Evaluation of soil degradation as effected by anthropogenic activities in connection with crops cultivation. Project of Ministry of Agriculture of Czech Republic, No. QH72039. [Final Report.] Troubsko, Agricultural research, Ltd.: 30–32. (in Czech)
Bartlová J., Badalíková B. (2010): Effect of different soil tillage on structural changes in topsoil and subsoil. Úroda, 58: 56–57. (in Czech)
Bogužas V., Kairytė A., Jodaugienė D. (2010): Soil physical properties and earthworms as affected by soil tillage systems, straw and green manure management. Žemdirbystė – Agriculture, 97: 3–14.
Caravaca F, Lax A, Albaladejo J (2004): Aggregate stability and carbon characteristics of particle-size fractions in cultivated and forested soils of semiarid Spain. Soil and Tillage Research, 78, 83-90 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2004.02.010
Daraghmeh O.A., Jensen J.R., Petersen C.T. (2009): Soil structure stability under conventional and reduced tillage in a sandy loam. Geoderma, 150, 64-71 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.geoderma.2009.01.007
Epperlein J. (2003): Development of the biological activity in different tillage systems. In: García-Torres L., Benites J., Martínez-Vilela A., Holgado-Cabrera A. (eds): Conservation Agriculture: Environment, Farmers Experiences, Innovations, Socio-Economy, Policy. Dordrecht, Springer-Science + Business Media: 387–393.
Falatah Abdulrazag M., Al‐Darby Ali M. (1993): Chemical properties of a calcareous soil as affected by tillages practices in Saudi Arabia. Arid Soil Research and Rehabilitation, 7, 347-353 https://doi.org/10.1080/15324989309381367
Gajić Boško, Đurović Nevenka, Dugalić Goran (2010): Composition and stability of soil aggregates in Fluvisols under forest, meadows, and 100 years of conventional tillage. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science, 173, 502-509 https://doi.org/10.1002/jpln.200700368
Golchin A., Asgari H. (2008): Land use effects on soil quality indicators in north-eastern Iran. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 46, 27- https://doi.org/10.1071/SR07049
Golchin A, Clarke P, Oades JM, Skjemstad JO (1995): The effects of cultivation on the composition of organic-matter and structural stability of soils. Australian Journal of Soil Research, 33, 975- https://doi.org/10.1071/SR9950975
HAYNES R. J., SWIFT R. S. (1990): Stability of soil aggregates in relation to organic constituents and soil water content. Journal of Soil Science, 41, 73-83 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.1990.tb00046.x
Hillel D. (1980): Fundamentals of Soil Physics. New York, Academic Press, Inc.: 100–125.
Hlušičková J., Lhotský J. (1994): Methodology: Protection of Soil Skeletal Structure from Technogenic Degradation. IAEI, Praha: 4–35. (in Czech)
Hůla J., Procházková B., Dryšlová T., Horáček J., Javůrek M., Kovaříček P., Kroulík M., Kumhála F., Smutný V., Tippl M., Winkler J. (2010): Impact of Unconventional Technologies of Soil Cultivation on Soil Environment. Applied Certified Methodology. RIAE, Praha. (in Czech)
Jin He, Hongwen Li, Kuhn N.J., Xuemin Zhang, Wenying Li (2007): Soil loosening on permanent raised-beds in arid northwest China. Soil and Tillage Research, 97, 172-183 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2007.09.016
Kandeler E. (1996): Aggregate stability. In: Schiner et al. (eds): Methods in Soil Biology. Berlin, Springer-Verlag: 390–395.
Kandeler E., Murer E. (1993): Aggregate stability and soil microbial processes in a soil with different cultivation. Geoderma, 56, 503-513 https://doi.org/10.1016/0016-7061(93)90130-D
Karlen D.L., Wollenhaupt N.C., Erbach D.C., Berry E.C., Swan J.B., Eash N.S., Jordahl J.L. (1994): Long-term tillage effects on soil quality. Soil and Tillage Research, 32, 313-327 https://doi.org/10.1016/0167-1987(94)00427-G
Kasper Martina, Buchan G.D., Mentler A., Blum W.E.H. (2009): Influence of soil tillage systems on aggregate stability and the distribution of C and N in different aggregate fractions. Soil and Tillage Research, 105, 192-199 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2009.08.002
Katai Z. (2009): Soil tillage systems as an abiotic factor in the production of oilseed rape (Bassica napus L.). Cereal Research Communications, 37: 411–414.
Kay B.D., Angers D.A. (2000): Soil Structure. In: Sumner M. et al. (eds): Handbook of Soil Science. Boca Raton, CRC Press: A229–A276.
Kemper W.D., Koch E.J. (1966): Aggregate stability of soils from Western portions of the United States and Canada. Technical Bulletin No. 1355, Washington D.C., USDA.
Kitur B. K., Phillips S. R., Olson K. R., Ebelhar S. A. (1994): Tillage effects on selected chemical properties of grantsburg silt loam 1
. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 25, 225-246 https://doi.org/10.1080/00103629409369033
Kodešová Radka, Rohošková Marcela, Žigová Anna (2009): Comparison of aggregate stability within six soil profiles under conventional tillage using various laboratory tests. Biologia, 64, - https://doi.org/10.2478/s11756-009-0095-6
Lammerding Diana Martin, Hontoria Chiquinquirá, Tenorio Jose Luis, Walter Ingrid (2011): Mediterranean Dryland Farming: Effect of Tillage Practices on Selected Soil Properties. Agronomy Journal, 103, 382- https://doi.org/10.2134/agronj2010.0210
Moraru P.I., Rusu T. (2011): Evolution of soil properties influenced by soil usage and soil tillage system. Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment, 9: 710–713.
Morris N.L., Miller P.C.H., J.H.Orson , Froud-Williams R.J. (2010): The adoption of non-inversion tillage systems in the United Kingdom and the agronomic impact on soil, crops and the environment—A review. Soil and Tillage Research, 108, 1-15 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2010.03.004
Murer E.J., Baumgarten A., Eder G., Gerzabek M.H., Kandeler E., Rampazzo N. (1993): An improved sieving machine for estimation of soil aggregate stability (SAS) In: Brussard L., Kooistra M.J. (eds): Int. Workshop on Methods of Research on Soil Structure/Biota Interrelationships, Geoderma, 56: 539–547.
Nichols K.A., Toro M. (2011): A whole soil stability index (WSSI) for evaluating soil aggregation. Soil and Tillage Research, 111, 99-104 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2010.08.014
Oades J. M. (1984): Soil organic matter and structural stability: mechanisms and implications for management. Plant and Soil, 76, 319-337 https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02205590
Panayiotopoulos K.P., Kostopoulou Sofia (1989): Aggregate stability dependence on size, cultivation and various soil constituents in Red Mediterranean soils (Alfisols). Soil Technology, 2, 79-89 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0933-3630(89)80009-1
Peregrina F., Larrieta C., Ibáñez S., García-Escudero E. (2010): Labile Organic Matter, Aggregates, and Stratification Ratios in a Semiarid Vineyard with Cover Crops. Soil Science Society of America Journal, 74, 2120- https://doi.org/10.2136/sssaj2010.0081
Romaneckas K., Sarauskis E., Pilipavicius V., Sakalauskas E. (2001): Impact of shotr-term ploughless tillage on soil properties, winter oilseed rape seedbed formation and productivity parameters. Journal of Food Agriculture and Environment, 9: 295–299.
Safadoust A., Mosaddeghi M.R., Mahboubi A.A. (2006): Tensile strength of air-dry soil aggregates as influenced by short-term management practices in western Iran. Soil Management for Sustainability. Advances in Geoecology, 38: 436–445.
Šarapatka B., Čáp L., Badalíková B., Bartlová J., Pospíšilová L., Hybler V. (2014): The influence of reduced tillage, subsoiling and ploughing systems on selected soil characteristics. Journal of Food, Agriculture and Environment, 12: 797–801.
Scott H.D. (2000): Soil Physics: Agriculture and Environmental Applications. 1st Ed. Ames, Iowa State University Press, 35–87.
Šimanský Vladimír, Bajčan Daniel, Ducsay Ladislav (2013): The effect of organic matter on aggregation under different soil management practices in a vineyard in an extremely humid year. CATENA, 101, 108-113 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.catena.2012.10.011
Six J, Bossuyt H, Degryze S, Denef K (2004): A history of research on the link between (micro)aggregates, soil biota, and soil organic matter dynamics. Soil and Tillage Research, 79, 7-31 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.still.2004.03.008
Tebrügge F, Düring R.-A (1999): Reducing tillage intensity — a review of results from a long-term study in Germany. Soil and Tillage Research, 53, 15-28 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0167-1987(99)00073-2
TISDALL J. M., OADES J. M. (1982): Organic matter and water-stable aggregates in soils. Journal of Soil Science, 33, 141-163 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2389.1982.tb01755.x
Vach M., Javůrek M. (2011): The effective technologies of soil management and stand establishment of field crops. Methodology for practice. Crop Research Institute, Prague: 6–8. (in Czech)
Woermann E. (1944): Ernährungswirtschaftliche Leistungsmaßstäbe. Mitteilungen der Landwirtschaft, 59: 787–792.
Zádorová T., Jakšík O., Kodešová R., Penížek V. (2011): Influence of terrain attributes and soil properties on soil aggregate stability. Soil and Water Research, 6: 111–119.
Zhang Zhen, Wei Chaofu, Xie Deti, Gao Ming, Zeng Xibai (2008): Effects of land use patterns on soil aggregate stability in Sichuan Basin, China. Particuology, 6, 157-166 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.partic.2008.03.001