Water infiltration into soil related to the soil tillage intensity
M. Kroulík, J. Hůla, R. Šindelář, F. Illekhttps://doi.org/10.17221/2098-SWRCitation:Kroulík M., Hůla J., Šindelář R., Illek F. (2007): Water infiltration into soil related to the soil tillage intensity. Soil & Water Res., 2: 15-24.
Soil infiltration capacity is one of the key factors in the soil protection against unfavourable effects of water erosion. The purpose of its measuring was to compare and evaluate the changes of the soil physical properties and of water infiltration into soil caused by different intensity of soil cultivation at two individual sites. The ploughing (PL), shallow tillage (ST), and direct drilling (NT) effects on the soil physical properties, water infiltration into soil, and soil surface coverage with the crop residua under the soil condition loamy Haplic Luvisol, with long-term growing of maize (Zea mays L.) - Agroservis, 1st Agricultural, a.s., Višňové - and clay soil of Calcic Chernozem (Cooperative farm Klapý), were compared. Soil bulk density values in the variant with ploughing showed in the depth up to 0.20 m considerably lower values as compared with the variants shallow tillage and direct drilling. Nevertheless, in the subsoil layer the bulk density of soil in the variant with ploughing increased in comparison with other variants. The results were also confirmed by the cone index values. At the plots in Višňové the infiltration was evaluated utilising the double ring infiltrometer, and by means of the coloured water infiltration. The results revealed significant differences in the water infiltration rate at various stages of the soil loosening. The highest average values were recorded for ploughing (1.00 dm3/min). The lowest values were found for the shallow soil tillage (0.18 dm3/min). The variant with direct drilling showed values of 0.53 dm3/min. The coloured water infiltration evaluation showed a different character of water flow in soil. The variant with ploughing showed water saturation in the top layer, the variants with reduced tillage were characterised by vertical macropores and crack effects with the water drain into deeper layers. Ploughing proved its advantage for the short-term rainfall retention. Similar results were also brought in the evaluation on the plot with clay soil (Klapý). The loosening effect was evident during coloured water infiltration in the period of snow thawing. The loosed soil layer showed a significantly higher soil water holding capacity as compared with variants with reduced soil tillage. The result showed major differences in the water infiltration rate into soil and different characters of water infiltration into soil at different soil tillage.Keywords:
water infiltration; water erosion; soil tillage