Estimated ruminal digestion values and digestion end-products of concentrated mix feed after in vitro treatment with propionic acid
This study was aimed at determining the effects of propionic acid supplementation at doses of 0 (control group, PA0), 12, 24, 48 and 96 mM (PA12, PA24, PA48, and PA96) to concentrated mix feed on in vitro cumulative total gas production, methane emission, gas kinetics (potential gas production, (a + b)gas and gas production rate, cgas), estimated digestibility, estimated energy value and the end-products and variables of in vitro digestion (total bacteria count, the number of ciliate protozoa, volatile fatty acids, pH value and ammonia-N). Digestion treatments were carried out in an anaerobic in vitro fermenter for up to 96 h. The in vitro cumulative total gas production, (a + b)gas, estimated metabolic energy, estimated net energy lactation and estimated organic matter digestibility and ammonia-N concentration were decreased by propionic acid up to 96 mM (P < 0.05). In the in vitro fermenter fluid, total bacteria count, the total numbers of ciliate protozoa and the individual numbers of some ciliate protozoa (Entodiniinae, Isotricha spp. and Diplodiniinae) (P < 0.01) decreased linearly with increasing concentrations of dietary propionic acid. The total molar concentrations of volatile fatty acids decreased in response to propionic acid supplementation (P < 0.001). Dietary propionic acid elicited linear increases in the molar concentrations of propionic acid (P < 0.001) and butyric acid (P < 0.01) as proportions of total volatile fatty acids of the in vitro fermenter fluid. In contrast, molar proportions of acetic acid, the cgas, pH values and the numbers of Dasytricha sp. were not affected by dietary propionic acid supplementation (P > 0.05). The addition of 12–96 mM propionic acid to concentrated mix feed decreased methane emission from the rumen and negatively affected microbiota count, feed digestibility, proteolysis, and molar volatile fatty acid values in the rumen environment.
AOAC – Association of Official Analytical Chemists (1980): Official Methods of Analysis. 13th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Inc., Arlington.
AOAC – Association of Official Analytical Chemists (1990): Official Methods of Analysis. 15th edn. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Inc., Arlington.
Baytok E, Aksu T, Karsli MA, Muruz H (2005): The effect of formic acid, molasses and inoculant as silage additives on corn silage composition and ruminal fermentation characteristics in sheep. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences 29, 469–474.
Belanche A., de la Fuente G., Moorby J. M., Newbold C. J. (2012): Bacterial protein degradation by different rumen protozoal groups1. Journal of Animal Science, 90, 4495-4504 https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2012-5118
Belanche Alejandro, de la Fuente Gabriel, Newbold Charles J. (2014): Effect of progressive inoculation of fauna-free sheep with holotrich protozoa and total-fauna on rumen fermentation, microbial diversity and methane emissions. FEMS Microbiology Ecology, 91, - https://doi.org/10.1093/femsec/fiu026
Callaway T R, Martin S A (1996): Effects of organic acid and monensin treatment on in vitro mixed ruminal microorganism fermentation of cracked corn.. Journal of Animal Science, 74, 1982- https://doi.org/10.2527/1996.7481982x
Castillo-González AR, Burrola-Barraza ME, Domínguez-Viveros J, Chávez-Martínez A (2014): Rumen microorganisms and fermentation. Archivos de medicina veterinaria, 46, 349-361 https://doi.org/10.4067/S0301-732X2014000300003
DEHORITY B. A. (1978): Specificity of Rumen Ciliate Protozoa in Cattle and Sheep*. The Journal of Protozoology, 25, 509-513 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1550-7408.1978.tb04177.x
Dibner J. J., Buttin P. (2002): Use of Organic Acids as a Model to Study the Impact of Gut Microflora on Nutrition and Metabolism1. The Journal of Applied Poultry Research, 11, 453-463 https://doi.org/10.1093/japr/11.4.453
Dönmez N, Karslı M.A, Çınar A, Aksu T, Baytok E (2003): The effects of different silage additives on rumen protozoan number and volatile fatty acid concentration in sheep fed corn silage. Small Ruminant Research, 48, 227-231 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0921-4488(03)00017-8
Ersahince AC, Kara K (2017): Nutrient composition and in vitro digestion parameters of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) herbage at different maturity stages in horse and ruminant. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences 26, 213–225.
Francis George, Kerem Zohar, Makkar Harinder P. S., Becker Klaus (2002): The biological action of saponins in animal systems: a review. British Journal of Nutrition, 88, 587- https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN2002725
García-Martínez R., Ranilla M. J., Tejido M. L., Carro M. D. (2005): Effects of disodium fumarate on in vitro rumen microbial growth, methane production and fermentation of diets differing in their forage:concentrate ratio. British Journal of Nutrition, 94, 71- https://doi.org/10.1079/BJN20051455
Hook Sarah E., Wright André-Denis G., McBride Brian W. (2010): Methanogens: Methane Producers of the Rumen and Mitigation Strategies. Archaea, 2010, 1-11 https://doi.org/10.1155/2010/945785
Ivan M., Neill L., Forster R., Alimon R., Rode L.M., Entz T. (2000): Effects of Isotricha, Dasytricha, Entodinium, and Total Fauna on Ruminal Fermentation and Duodenal Flow in Wethers Fed Different Diets. Journal of Dairy Science, 83, 776-787 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(00)74940-X
JAAKKOLA S., RINNE M., HEIKKILÄ T. (2006): Effects of restriction of silage fermentation with formic acid on milk production. Agricultural and Food Science, 15, 200- https://doi.org/10.2137/145960606779216290
Kara Kanber (2016): In Vitro
Methane Production and Quality of Corn Silage Treated with Maleic Acid. Italian Journal of Animal Science, 14, 3994- https://doi.org/10.4081/ijas.2015.3994
Kara K, Aktug E, Cagri A, Guclu BK, Baytok E (2015a): Effect of formic acid on in vitro ruminal fermentation and methane emission. Turkish Journal of Agriculture – Food Science and Technology 3, 856–860.
Kara K, Guclu BK, Baytok E (2015b): Comparison of nutrient composition and anti-methanogenic properties of different Rosaceae species. Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences 24, 308–314.
Kara Kanber, Özkaya Serkan, Erbaş Sabri, Baytok Erol (2017): Effect of dietary formic acid on the in vitro
ruminal fermentation parameters of barley-based concentrated mix feed of beef cattle. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 46, 178-183 https://doi.org/10.1080/09712119.2017.1284073
Li Xiang Z., Park Byung K., Shin Jong S., Choi Seong H., Smith Stephen B., Yan Chang G., Forster Robert J (2015): Effects of Dietary Linseed Oil and Propionate Precursors on Ruminal Microbial Community, Composition, and Diversity in Yanbian Yellow Cattle. PLOS ONE, 10, e0126473- https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126473
Lopez S, Newbold CJ, Bochi-Brum O, Moss AR, Wallace RJ (1999a): Propionate precursors and other metabolic intermediates as possible alternative electron acceptors to methanogenesis in ruminal in vitro. South African Journal of Animal Science 29, 106–107.
Lopez S, Valdes C, Newbold CJ, Wallace RJ (1999b): Influence of sodium fumarate addition on rumen fermentation in vitro. British Journal of Nutrition 81, 59–64.
Makkar H.P.S., Becker K. (1996): Nutrional value and antinutritional components of whole and ethanol extracted Moringa oleifera leaves. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 63, 211-228 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(96)01023-1
Martin S A (1998): Manipulation of ruminal fermentation with organic acids: a review.. Journal of Animal Science, 76, 3123- https://doi.org/10.2527/1998.76123123x
Menke KH, Steingass H (1987): Food energy content estimates from in vitro gas production in rumen fluid and from chemical analysis. II. Regression equations (in German). Uebersicht zur Tierernaehrung 15, 59–94.
Menke K. H., Raab L., Salewski A., Steingass H., Fritz D., Schneider W. (1979): The estimation of the digestibility and metabolizable energy content of ruminant feedingstuffs from the gas production when they are incubated with rumen liquor in vitro. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 93, 217- https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600086305
MINATO HAJIME, SUTO TSUNEJI (1981): Technique for fractionation of bacteria in rumen microbial ecosystem. IV. Attachment of rumen bacteria to cellulose powder and elution of bacteria attached to it.. The Journal of General and Applied Microbiology, 27, 21-31 https://doi.org/10.2323/jgam.27.21
NRC – Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle (2001): Nutrient requirements of dairy cattle. 7th edn. Subcommittee on Dairy Cattle Nutrition, Committee on Animal Nutrition, Board on Agriculture and Natural Resources, National Research Council. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.
Newbold CJ, Ouda JO, Lopez S, Nelson N, Omed H, Wallace RJ, Moss AR (2002): Propionate precursors as possible alternative electron acceptors to methane in ruminal fermentation. In: Takahashi J, Young BA (eds): Greenhouse Gases and Animal Agriculture. 1st edn. Elsevier Science, Amsterdam. 151–154.
Ørskov E. R., McDonald I. (1979): The estimation of protein degradability in the rumen from incubation measurements weighted according to rate of passage. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 92, 499- https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600063048
Pandey P, Sirohi SK, Goel N, Mohini M (2012): Effect of addition of propionic acid on in vitro dry matter digestibility, methane production and rumen fermentation in mixed diets containing wheat straw with sorghum or berseem as roughage source. Wayamba Journal of Animal Science 4, 282–288.
Papatsiros V (2013): Alternatives to antibiotics for farm animals.. CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources, 8, - https://doi.org/10.1079/PAVSNNR20138032
Sirohi SK, Pandey P, Goel N, Mohini M, Kundu SS (2012): Effect of tartaric acid addition on rumen fermentation, methane production and digestibility in different diets containing wheat straw in vitro. Online Journal of Animal and Feed Research 2, 308–313.
Tejido ML, Ranilla MJ, Garcia-Martinez R, Carro MD (2005): In vitro microbial growth and rumen fermentation of different substrates as affected by the addition of disodium malate. Journal of Animal Science 81, 31–38.
Van Soest P.J., Robertson J.B., Lewis B.A. (1991): Methods for Dietary Fiber, Neutral Detergent Fiber, and Nonstarch Polysaccharides in Relation to Animal Nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 3583-3597 https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78551-2
Veira Douglas M. (1986): The Role of Ciliate Protozoa in Nutrition of the Ruminant. Journal of Animal Science, 63, 1547-1560 https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1986.6351547x