Effect of environmental enrichment on weaned piglets: physiological responses

https://doi.org/10.17221/104/2018-VETMEDCitation:Yanez-Pizana A., Mota-Rojas D., Castillo-Rivera M., Rampirez-Necoechea R., Guerrero-Legarreta I., Mora-Medina P., Gonzalez-Lozano M. (2019): Effect of environmental enrichment on weaned piglets: physiological responses. Veterinarni Medicina, 64: 217-227.
download PDF

The aim of this research consisted in assessing the effect of various kinds of environmental enrichment (EE) on the physiological responses of weaned piglets. The mean age of the 96 piglets that participated was 27 days. The piglets were weaned and then housed under two conditions: with no disruption of the social order (SO), and with disruption of the social order (DSO). After establishing the two experimental conditions, we proceeded to evaluate four different treatments; namely, control (C), suspended ropes (SR), aromatized bottles (AB) and pet toys and balls (PTB). The protocol required drawing three blood samples: at 30 (T30), 60 (T60) and 90 min (T90) after weaning. The DSO piglets had higher pH and haematocrit levels than those weaned in the SO condition (P < 0.05). Also, pCO2, potassium (K+) and base excess (BE) concentrations were higher in the SO animals than in those in the DSO group (P < 0.05). The control piglets, which did not receive any type of EE, showed higher pCO2 levels, but lower glucose and pH (P < 0.05) values, while the ones enriched with SR had increased lactate levels, but lower values for pH and HCO3 compared to the piglets in the other EE treatment regimens (P < 0.05). The SR-enriched piglets had higher lactate and haematocrit levels, but lower values for pH and bicarbonate (HCO3) than the animals in the other EE groups (P < 0.005). The piglets subjected to sensorial EE with AB had higher plasma glucose than the ones in the other groups (P < 0.005). Finally, the PTB-enriched subjects showed higher Na+ levels than controls (P < 0.005). The alterations that were found to be related to the factor sampling time were more pronounced at T30 (P < 0.05) than T60 and T90. These results indicate that the conditions (SO, DSO) and EE (C, SR, AB, PTB) under which the piglets were weaned influenced the blood variables measured in the study.

Aronson Peter S., Giebisch Gerhard (2011): Effects of pH on Potassium: New Explanations for Old Observations. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 22, 1981-1989 https://doi.org/10.1681/ASN.2011040414
Barth Eberhard, Albuszies Gerd, Baumgart Katja, Matejovic Martin, Wachter Ulrich, Vogt Josef, Radermacher Peter, Calzia Enrico (2007): Glucose metabolism and catecholamines. Critical Care Medicine, 35, S508-S518 https://doi.org/10.1097/01.CCM.0000278047.06965.20
Becerril-Herrera M., Alonso-Spilsbury M., Lemus-Flores C., Guerrero-Legarreta I., Olmos-Hernández A., Ramírez-Necoechea R., Mota-Rojas D. (2009): CO2 stunning may compromise swine welfare compared with electrical stunning. Meat Science, 81, 233-237 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2008.07.025
Becerril-Herrera M., Alonso-Spilsbury M., Ortega M.E. Trujillo, Guerrero-Legarreta I., Ramírez-Necoechea R., Roldan-Santiago P., Pérez-Sato M., Soní-Guillermo E., Mota-Rojas D. (2010): Changes in blood constituents of swine transported for 8 or 16h to an Abattoir. Meat Science, 86, 945-948 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2010.07.021
Berry R. J., Lewis N. J. (2001): The effect of duration and temperature of simulated transport on the performance of early-weaned piglets. Canadian Journal of Animal Science, 81, 199-204 https://doi.org/10.4141/A00-069
Brown EJ, Vosloo A (2017): The involvement of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical axis in stress physiology and its significance in the assessment of animal welfare in cattle. Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research 84, 1–9.
Commission Recommendation (EU) 2016/336 of 8 March 2016 on the application of Council Directive 2008/120/EC laying down minimum standards for the protection of pigs as regards measures to reduce the need for tail-docking.
DiBartola SP (2012a): Disorders of sodium and water: hypernatremia and hyponatremia. In: DiBartola SP (ed.): Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Disorders in Small Animal Practice. 4th edn. St Louis. Elsevier Health Sciences. 45–79 p.
DiBartola SP (2012b): Disorders of potassium: Hyperkalemia and hypokalemia. In: DiBartola SP (ed.): Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Disorders in Small Animal Practice. 4th edn. St Louis. Elsevier Health Sciences. 92–119 p.
European Union (2009): Council Directive 2008/120/EC of 18 December 2008 laying down minimum standards for the protection of pigs. Official Journal of the European Union. Chapter 1, point 4, L47/5.
Eze JI, Onunkwo JI, Shoyinka SVO, Chah FK, Ngene AA, Okolinta N, Nwanta JA, Onyenwe IW (2010): Haematological profiles of pigs raised under intensive management system in south-eastern Nigeria. Nigerian Veterinary Journal 31, 115–123.
Fazio F., Casella S., Giudice E., Giannetto C., Piccione G. (2015): Evaluation of secondary stress biomarkers during road transport in rabbit. Livestock Science, 173, 106-110 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2015.01.006
Fels Michaela, Hartung Jörg, Hoy Steffen (2014): Social hierarchy formation in piglets mixed in different group compositions after weaning. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 152, 17-22 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2014.01.003
Gladden L. B. (2004): Lactate metabolism: a new paradigm for the third millennium. The Journal of Physiology, 558, 5-30 https://doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2003.058701
Gonyou HW, Keeling LJ (2001): Social Behavior in Farm Animals. CABI Pub, New York. 406 pp.
Gotelli NJ, Ellison AM (2004): A Primer of Ecological Statistics. Sinauer Associates Publishers, Sunderland. 510 pp.
Islas-Fabila P., Mota-Rojas D., Martínez-Burnes J., Mora-Medina P., González-Lozano M., Roldán-Santiago P., Greenwell-Beare V., González-Hernández M., Vega-Manríquez X., Orozco-Gregorio H. (2018): Physiological and metabolic responses in newborn piglets associated with the birth order. Animal Reproduction Science, 197, 247-256 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.08.037
Jezek J, Staric J, Nemec M, Plut J, Golinar OI, Klinkin M, Stukelj M (2018): The influence of age, farm, and physiological status on pig hematological profiles. Journal of Swine Health and Production 26, 72–78.
Kelly H.R.C, Bruce J.M, English P.R, Fowler V.R, Edwards S.A (2000): Behaviour of 3-week weaned pigs in Straw-Flow®, deep straw and flatdeck housing systems. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 68, 269-280 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1591(00)00109-X
Klein BG (2014): Homeostasis ácido-básica. In: Klein BG (ed): Cunningham: Fisiología Veterinaria. 5th edn. Elsevier, Barcelona. 607 pp.
Lau YYW, Pluske JR, Fleming PA (2015): Does the environmental background (intensive v. outdoor systems) influence the behaviour of piglets at weaning? Animal 9, 1361–1372.
Lezama-Garcia K, Orihuela A, Olmos-Hernandez A, Reyes-Long S, Mota-Rojas D (2019): Invited review: Facial expressions and emotions in domestic animals. CAB Reviews 14, 1–12.
Main R. G., Dritz S. S., Tokach M. D., Goodband R. D., Nelssen J. L. (2004): Increasing weaning age improves pig performance in a multisite production system1. Journal of Animal Science, 82, 1499-1507 https://doi.org/10.2527/2004.8251499x
Manteca X, Mainau E, Temple D (2013): Stress in farm animals and effect on performance. The Farm Animal Fact Welfare Sheet 6, 1–2.
Martínez-Rodríguez R., Roldan-Santiago P., Orozco-Gregorio H., Trujillo-Ortega M., Mora-Medina P, González-Lozano M., Sánchez-Hernández M., Bonilla-Jaime H., García-Herrera R., Hernández-Trujillo E., Mota-Rojas D. (2015): Physiological responses and blood gas exchange following long-distance transport of piglets weaned at different ages over unpaved or paved roads. Livestock Science, 172, 69-78 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2014.12.013
McGlone John J. (2001): Farm animal welfare in the context of other society issues: toward sustainable systems. Livestock Production Science, 72, 75-81 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0301-6226(01)00268-8
Merlot Elodie, Meunier-Salaün Marie-Christine, Prunier Armelle (2004): Behavioural, endocrine and immune consequences of mixing in weaned piglets. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 85, 247-257 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2003.11.002
Mota-Rojas D., Orozco-Gregorio H., Villanueva-Garcia D., Bonilla-Jaime H., Suarez-Bonilla X., Hernandez-Gonzalez R., Roldan-Santiago P., Trujillo-Ortega ME (2011): Foetal and neonatal energy metabolism in pigs and humans: a review. Veterinární Medicína, 56, 215-225 https://doi.org/10.17221/1565-VETMED
Mota-Rojas D., Becerril-Herrera M., Roldan-Santiago P., Alonso-Spilsbury M., Flores-Peinado S., Ramírez-Necoechea R., Ramírez-Telles J.A., Mora-Medina P., Pérez M., Molina E., Soní E., Trujillo-Ortega M.E. (2012): Effects of long distance transportation and CO2 stunning on critical blood values in pigs. Meat Science, 90, 893-898 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2011.11.027
Mota-Rojas D., Martinez-Burnes J., Villanueva-Garcia D., Roldan-Santiago P., Trujillo-Ortega ME, Orozco-Gregorio H., Bonilla-Jaime H., Lopez-Mayagoitia A. (2012): &nbsp;Animal welfare in the newborn piglet: a review. Veterinární Medicína, 57, 338-349 https://doi.org/10.17221/6262-VETMED
Mota-Rojas D, Villanueva-Garcia D, Hernandez-Gonzalez R, Roldan-Santiago P, Martinez-Rodriguez R, Mora-Medina P, Gonzalez-Meneses B, Sanchez-Hernandez M, Trujillo-Ortega M (2012c): Assessment of the vitality of the newborn: an overview. Scientific Research and Essays 7, 712–718.
Mota-Rojas D, Roldan-Santiago P, Perez-Pedraza E, Martinez-Rodriguez R, Hernandez-Trujillo E, Ortega MET (2014): Stress factors in weaned piglet. Veterinaria Mexico 45, 37–51.
Mota-Rojas D., Fierro R., Roldan-Santiago P., Orozco-Gregorio H., González-Lozano M., Bonilla H., Martínez-Rodríguez R., García-Herrera R., Mora-Medina P., Flores-Peinado S., Sánchez M., Ramírez-Necoechea R. (2015): Outcomes of gestation length in relation to farrowing performance in sows and daily weight gain and metabolic profiles in piglets. Animal Production Science, 55, 93- https://doi.org/10.1071/AN13175
Mota-Rojas D, Lopez A, Martinez-Burnes J, Muns R, Villanueva-Garcia D, Mora-Medina P, Gonzalez-Lozano M, Olmos-Hernandez A, Ramirez-Necoechea R (2018a): Invited review: Is vitality assessment important in neonatal animals? CAB Reviews 13, 1–13. doi: 10.1079/PAVSNNR13036.
Mota-Rojas D (2018): Olfaction in animal behaviour and welfare.. CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources, 13, - https://doi.org/10.1079/PAVSNNR201813030
Nannoni E., Sardi L., Vitali M., Trevisi E., Ferrari A., Barone F., Bacci M.L., Barbieri S., Martelli G. (2016): Effects of different enrichment devices on some welfare indicators of post-weaned undocked piglets. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 184, 25-34 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2016.08.004
Newberry Ruth C. (1995): Environmental enrichment: Increasing the biological relevance of captive environments. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 44, 229-243 https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-1591(95)00616-Z
NOM-062-ZOO-1999 (1999): Norma Oficial Mexicana. Especificaciones técnicas para la producción, cuidado y uso de los animales de laboratorio. Secretaría de Agricultura, Ganadería. Desarrollo Rural, Pesca y Alimentación. Comité Consultivo Nacional de Normalización de Protección Zoosanitaria. Diario oficial. México. 107–165 p.
Nowicki Jacek, Klocek Czesław (2012): The Effect of Aromatized Environmental Enrichment in Pen on Social Relations and Behavioural Profile of Newly Mixed Weaners. Annals of Animal Science, 12, 403-412 https://doi.org/10.2478/v10220-012-0034-2
Nowicki J, Kopyra M, Klocek C (2007): The behavioural reaction of weaners to hanging toys: wooden ball and aromatized wooden ball – way to reduce aggression after mixing. Journal of Central European Agriculture 8, 447–452.
Nowicki J, Swierkosz S, Tuz R, Schwarz T (2015): The influence of aromatized environmental enrichment objects with changeable aromas on the behaviour of weaned piglets. Veterinarski Arhiv 85, 425–435.
Orihuela A (2018): Environmental enrichment to improve behaviour in farm animals.. CAB Reviews: Perspectives in Agriculture, Veterinary Science, Nutrition and Natural Resources, 13, - https://doi.org/10.1079/PAVSNNR201813059
Orozco-Gregorio H., Mota-Rojas D., Alonso-Spilsbury M., Olmos-Hernandez A., Ramirez-Necoechea R., Velazquez-Armenta E. Y., Nava-Ocampo A. A., Hernandez-Gonzalez R., Trujillo-Ortega M. E., Villanueva-Garcia D. (2009): Short-Term Neurophysiologic Consequences of Intrapartum Asphyxia in Piglets Born by Spontaneous Parturition. International Journal of Neuroscience, 118, 1299-1315 https://doi.org/10.1080/00207450701872846
Oostindjer Marije, Muñoz Julia Mas, Van den Brand Henry, Kemp Bas, Bolhuis J. Elizabeth (2011): Maternal presence and environmental enrichment affect food neophobia of piglets. Biology Letters, 7, 19-22 https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2010.0430
Orozco-Gregorio Héctor, Mota-Rojas Daniel, Bonilla-Jaime Herlinda, Trujillo-Ortega María E., Becerril-Herrera Marcelino, Hernández-González Rafael, Villanueva-García Dina (2010): Effects of administration of caffeine on metabolic variables in neonatal pigs with peripartum asphyxia. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 71, 1214-1219 https://doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.71.10.1214
Orozco-Gregorio H, Mota-Rojas D, Villanueva D, Suarez-Bonilla X, Torres-Gonzalez L, Bolanos D, Gonzalez RH, Martinez-Rodriguez R, Trujillo-Ortega ME (2011): Caffeine therapy for apnoea of prematurity: Pharmacological treatment. African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 5, 564–571.
Parratt Christopher A., Chapman Kathryn J., Turner Christine, Jones Philip H., Mendl Michael T., Miller Bevis G. (2006): The fighting behaviour of piglets mixed before and after weaning in the presence or absence of a sow. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 101, 54-67 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2006.01.009
Pérez-Pedraza Efraín, Mota-Rojas Daniel, González-Lozano Miguel, Guerrero-Legarreta Isabel, Martínez-Burnes Julio, Mora-Medina Patricia, Cruz-Monterrosa Rosy, Ramírez-Necoechea Ramiro (2018): Infrared Thermography and Metabolic Changes in Castrated Piglets due to the Effects of Age and the Number of Incisions in the Testicles. American Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 13, 104-114 https://doi.org/10.3844/ajavsp.2018.104.114
Petersen Volker, Simonsen Henrik B., Lawson Lartey G. (1995): The effect of environmental stimulation on the development of behaviour in pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 45, 215-224 https://doi.org/10.1016/0168-1591(95)00631-2
Pluske J.R., Durmic Z., Payne H.G., Mansfield J., Mullan B.P., Hampson D.J., Vercoe P.E. (2007): Microbial diversity in the large intestine of pigs born and reared in different environments. Livestock Science, 108, 113-116 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.livsci.2007.01.010
Rodarte Luis F., Ducoing Andres, Galindo Francisco, Romano Marta C., Valdez Ricardo A. (2004): The Effect of Environmental Manipulation on Behavior, Salivary Cortisol, and Growth of Piglets Weaned at 14 Days of Age. Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science, 7, 171-179 https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327604jaws0703_3
Roldan-Santiago P., Martinez-Rodriguez R., Yanez-Pizana A., Trujillo-Ortega ME (2013): Stressor factors in the transport of weaned piglets: a review. Veterinární Medicína, 58, 241-251 https://doi.org/10.17221/6805-VETMED
Roldan-Santiago P., Mota-Rojas D., Orozco-Gregorio H., Borderas-Tordesillas F., Martínez-Rodríguez R., Mora-Medina P., Flores-Peinado S., Sánchez-Hernández M., Trujillo-Ortega M. E. (2015): Welfare of recently weaned piglets transported on unpaved roads: the effect of age and the use of straw bedding. Animal Production Science, 55, 648- https://doi.org/10.1071/AN13067
Rootwelt V., Reksen O., Farstad W., Framstad T. (2012): Blood variables and body weight gain on the first day of life in crossbred pigs and importance for survival. Journal of Animal Science, 90, 1134-1141 https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2011-4435
Ruffin Vernon A., Salameh Ahlam I., Boron Walter F., Parker Mark D. (2014): Intracellular pH regulation by acid-base transporters in mammalian neurons. Frontiers in Physiology, 5, - https://doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2014.00043
SAS (2004): Statistical Analysis System. Institute, Inc.: Cary, NC.
Sherwin Chris M, Christiansen Stine B, Duncan Ian J, Erhard Hans W, Lay Don C, Mench Joy A, O’Connor Cheryl E, Petherick J.Carol (2003): Guidelines for the ethical use of animals in applied ethology studies. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 81, 291-305 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1591(02)00288-5
Stokes Christopher R., Bailey Michael, Haverson Karin, Harris Cecilla, Jones Philip, Inman Charlotte, Pié Sandrine, Oswald Isabelle P., Williams Barbara A., Akkermans Antoon D.L., Sowa Eveline, Rothkötter Hermann-Josef, Miller Bevis G. (2004): Postnatal development of intestinal immune system in piglets: implications for the process of weaning. Animal Research, 53, 325-334 https://doi.org/10.1051/animres:2004020
Telkänranta Helena, Bracke Marc B.M., Valros Anna (2014): Fresh wood reduces tail and ear biting and increases exploratory behaviour in finishing pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 161, 51-59 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2014.09.007
Trickett Sarah L., Guy Jonathan H., Edwards Sandra A. (2009): The role of novelty in environmental enrichment for the weaned pig. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 116, 45-51 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2008.07.007
Trujillo-Ortega M.E., Mota-Rojas D., JuárezO , Villanueva-García D., Roldan-Santiago P., Becerril-Herrera M., Hernández-GonzálezR , Mora-Medina P., Alonso-Spilsbury M., Rosales A.M., Martínez-Rodríguez R., Ramírez-Necoechea R. (2011): Porcine neonates failing vitality score: physio-metabolic profile and latency to the first teat contact. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 56, 499-508 https://doi.org/10.17221/3839-CJAS
van de Weerd Heleen A., Day Jon E.L. (2009): A review of environmental enrichment for pigs housed in intensive housing systems. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 116, 1-20 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2008.08.001
Van de Weerd Heleen A., Docking Caroline M., Day Jon E.L., Avery Peter J., Edwards Sandra A. (2003): A systematic approach towards developing environmental enrichment for pigs. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 84, 101-118 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0168-1591(03)00150-3
Weary Daniel M., Jasper Jennifer, Hötzel Maria J. (2008): Understanding weaning distress. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 110, 24-41 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.applanim.2007.03.025
Westin R, Holmgren N, Mattsson B, Algers B (2013): Throughput capacity of large quantities of chopped straw in partly slatted farrowing pens for loose housed sows. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica Section A. Animal Science 63, 18–27.
Wijtten Peter J. A., Meulen Jan van der, Verstegen Martin W. A. (2011): Intestinal barrier function and absorption in pigs after weaning: a review. British Journal of Nutrition, 105, 967-981 https://doi.org/10.1017/S0007114510005660
Zar JH (2010): Biostatistical Analysis. Prentice Hall, New Jersey. 944 pp.
download PDF

© 2019 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences