Aarestrup FM (2015): The livestock reservoir for antimicrobial resistance: a personal view on changing patterns of risks, effects of interventions and the way forward. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 370, 20140085. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2014.0085
Acha PN, Szyfres B (2003): Zoonoses and communicable diseases common to man and animals. 3rd edn. Vol I. Pan American Health Organization – Scientific and Technical Publication (Number 580). Washington, USA. 251–256 pp.
Ali AA, Basha OA, Ibrahim MS (2017): Incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolation from sheep and goat. Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences 54, 142–148. https://doi.org/10.5455/ajvs.244291
Aljameel MA, Halima MO, ElTigani-Asil AE, Abdalla AS, Abdellatif MM (2014): Liver abscesses in dromedary camels: Pathological characteristics and aerobic bacterial aetiology. Open Veterinary Journal 4, 118–123.
Al-Thani RF, Al-Ali F (2012): Incidences and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Staphylococcus species isolated from animals in different Qatari farms. African Journal of Microbiology Research 6, 7454–7458. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJMR12.1270
a Mpalang RK, Boreux R, Melin P, Daube G, De Mol P (2014): Prevalence of Campylobacter among goats and retail goat meat in Congo. The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries 8, 168–175. https://doi.org/10.3855/jidc.3199
Baserisalehi M, Bahador N, Kapadnis BP (2007): Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter spp. from domestic animals and poultry in south of Iran. Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences 10, 1519–1524. https://doi.org/10.3923/pjbs.2007.1519.1524
Boehm AB, Sassoubre LM (2014): Enterococci as indicators of environmental fecal contamination. In: Gilmore MS, Clewell DB, Ike Y, Shankar N (eds): Enterococci: From Commensals to Leading Causes of Drug Resistant Infection. Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, Massachusetts.
Bosilevac JM, Gassem MA, Al Sheddy IA, Almaiman SA, Al-Mohizea IS, Alowaimer A, Koohmaraie M (2015): Prevalence of Escherichia coli O157: H7 and Salmonella in camels, cattle, goats, and sheep harvested for meat in Riyadh. Journal of Food Protection 78, 89–96. https://doi.org/10.4315/0362-028X.JFP-14-176
Bostan K, Aydin A, Ang MK (2009): Prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter species on beef, mutton, and chicken carcasses in Istanbul, Turkey. Microbial Drug Resistance 15, 143–149. https://doi.org/10.1089/mdr.2009.0894
Cloak OM, Duffy G, Sheridan JJ, Blair IS, McDowell DA (2001): A survey on the incidence of Campylobacter spp. and the development of a surface adhesion polymerase chain reaction (SA-PCR) assay for the detection of Campylobacter jejuni in retail meat products. Food Microbiology 18, 287–298. https://doi.org/10.1006/fmic.2001.0400
CLSI (2017): Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. 27th edn. CLSI supplements M100. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, Wayne, PA.
El-Badawi AY (2018): The present situation of animal protein in Egypt and the role of camels in providing cheap and healthy meat for people in poor greenery lands. International Journal of Avian & Wildlife Biology 3, 319‒322.
Eldoma HH, Omar RI (2015): Aerobic bacteria isolated from condemned camel livers in Southern Darfur, Sudan. International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 7, 8–12.
Esfandiari Z, Weese JS, Ezzatpanah H, Chamani M, Shoaei P, Yaran M, Jalali M (2015): Isolation and characterization of Clostridium difficile in farm animals from slaughterhouse to retail stage in Isfahan, Iran. Foodborne Pathogens and Disease 12, 864–866. https://doi.org/10.1089/fpd.2014.1910
Elsharawy NT, Mahran HA (2018): Determination of hygienic condition of municipal slaughterhouse and its microbial effect on the meat quality. Alexandria Journal of Veterinary Sciences 59, 11–18. https://doi.org/10.5455/ajvs.302642785
Facklam RR, Sahm DF (1995): Enterococcus. In: Murray PR, Baron EJ, Pfaller MA, Tenover FC, Yolken RH (eds): Manual of Clinical Microbiology. 6th edn. ASM Press, Washington DC. 308–314 pp.
Gilliss D, Cronquist AB, Cartter M, Tobin-D’Angelo M, Blythe D, Smith K, Lathrop S, Zansky S, Cieslak PR, Dunn J, Holt KG (2013): Incidence and trends of infection with pathogens transmitted commonly through food – foodborne diseases active surveillance network, 10 US sites, 1996–2012. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 62, 283–287.
Greeson K, Suliman GM, Sami A, Alowaimer A, Koohmaraie M (2013): Frequency of antibiotic resistant Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus, and Staphylococcus aureus in meat in Saudi Arabia. African Journal of Microbiology Research 7, 309–316. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJMR12.930
Gwida MM, El-Gohary FA (2013): Zoonotic bacterial pathogens isolated from raw milk with special reference to Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus in Dakahlia Governorate, Egypt. 2, 705. doi:10.4172/scientificreports.705.
Hamza II, Shuaib YA, Suliman SE, Abdalla MA (2017): Aerobic bacteria isolated from internal lesions of camels at Tambool slaughterhouse. Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research 4, 22–31. https://doi.org/10.5455/javar.2017.d185
Hemmat MI, Reham AA, Omima AS, El Shafay MS (2013): Quality of beef and edible offal at abattoir level. Benha Veterinary Medical Journal 25, 254–263.
Humphrey T, O’Brien S, Madsen M (2007): Campylobacters as zoonotic pathogens: a food production perspective. International Journal of Food Microbiology 117, 237–257. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2007.01.006
Jahan M, Krause DO, Holley RA (2013): Antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus species from meat and fermented meat products isolated by a PCR-based rapid screening method. International Journal of Food Microbiology 163, 89–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2013.02.017
Jaradat Z, Al Aboudi A, Shatnawi M, Ababneh Q (2013): Staphylococcus aureus isolates from camels differ in coagulase production, genotype and methicillin resistance gene profiles. The Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences 2, 2455–2461.
Karikari AB, Obiri-Danso K, Frimpong EH, Krogfelt KA (2017): Antibiotic resistance of Campylobacter recovered from faeces and carcasses of healthy livestock. BioMed Research International. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4091856
Klibi N, Lagha AB, Slama KB, Boudabous A, Torres C (2013): Faecal enterococci from camels in Tunisia: Species, antibiotic resistance and virulent genes. Veterinary Record 172, 213. https://doi.org/10.1136/vr.100910
Maridor ML, Denis M, Lalande F, Beaurepaire B, Cariolet R, Fravalo P, Federighi M, Seegers H, Belloc C (2008): Experimental infection of specific pathogen-free pigs with Campylobacter: Excretion in feces and transmission to non-inoculated pigs. Veterinary Microbiology 131, 309–317. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2008.04.008
Naas HT, Almajdoubi Z, Garbaj AM, Azwai SM, Gammoudi FT, Abolghait SK, Moawad AA, Barbieri I, Eshamah HL, Eldaghayes IM (2017): Molecular identification and antibiogram of Enterococcus spp. isolated on Enterococcus selective differential (ESD) media from meat, meat products and seafood in Libya. The Journal of Microbiology, Biotechnology and Food Sciences 6, 1264–1268. https://doi.org/10.15414/jmbfs.2017.6.6.1264-1268
Noormohamed A, Fakhr M (2013): A higher prevalence rate of Campylobacter in retail beef livers compared to other beef and pork meat cuts. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 10, 2058–2068. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph10052058
Premarathne JM, Anuar AS, Thung TY, Satharasinghe DA, Jambari NN, Abdul-Mutalib NA, Huat JT, Basri DF, Rukayadi Y, Nakaguchi Y, Nishibuchi M (2017): Prevalence and antibiotic resistance against tetracycline in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli in cattle and beef meat from Selangor, Malaysia. Frontiers in Microbiology 8, 2254. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.02254
Quddoumi SS, Bdour SM, Mahasneh AM (2006): Isolation and characterization of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from livestock and poultry meat. Annals of Microbiology 56, 155–161. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF03174998
Rahimi E, Alipoor-Amroabadi M, Khamesipour F (2017): Investigation of prevalence of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in livestock feces. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 97, 207–213. https://doi.org/10.1139/cjas-2015-0166
Raji MA, Garaween G, Ehricht R, Monecke S, Shibl AM, Senok A (2016): Genetic characterization of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from retail meat in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Frontiers in Microbiology 7. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.00911
Rozanska H, Lewtak-Pilat A, Osek J (2015): Antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from meat. Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy 59, 229–233. https://doi.org/10.1515/bvip-2015-0034
Salihu MD, Junaidu AU, Abubakar MB, Magaji AA, Mohammed LG (2009a): Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter species from camel (Camelus dromedarius) in Sokoto State, Northwestern Nigeria. International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 1, 25–27.
Salihu MD, Junaidu AU, Oboegbulem SI, Egwu GO (2009b): Prevalence and biotypes of Campylobacter species isolated from sheep in Sokoto State, Nigeria. International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances 1, 6–9.
Salihu MD, Junaidu AU, Magaji AA, Faleke OO, Abubakar MB, Tambuwal FM, Ahmad I, Ahmed A, Yakubu Y (2011): Prevalence and antibiotic resistance of thermophilic campylobacter spp. isolates from raw beef, mutton and camel meat in Sokoto, Nigeria. Research Opinions in Animal & Veterinary Sciences 1, 401–405.
Schirone M, Visciano P, Tofalo R, Suzzi G (2017): Biological hazards in food. Frontiers in Microbiology 9, 2154. doi: org/10.3389/fmicb.2016.02154.
Shin E, Lee Y (2009): Comparison of three different methods for campylobacter isolation from porcine intestines. Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 19, 647–650.
Silva J, Leite D, Fernandes M, Mena C, Gibbs PA, Teixeira P (2011): Campylobacter spp. as a foodborne pathogen: a review. Frontiers in Microbiology 27, 200. https://doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2011.00200
Stipetic K, Chang YC, Peters K, Salem A, Doiphode SH, McDonough PL, Mohammed HO (2016): The risk of carriage of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes in food animals in dynamic populations. Veterinary Medicine and Science 2, 246–254. https://doi.org/10.1002/vms3.39
Tejedor-Junco MT, Gonzalez-Martin M, Gonzalez NF, Gutierrez C (2015): Identification, antimicrobial susceptibility, and virulence factors of Enterococcus spp. strains isolated from Camels in Canary Islands, Spain. Veterinaria Italiana 5, 179–183.
Tyson GH, Nyirabahizi E, Crarey E, Kabera C, Lam C, Rice-Trujillo C, McDermott PF, Tate H (2018): Prevalence and antimicrobial resistance of enterococci isolated from retail meats in the United States, 2002 to 2014. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 84, e01902–e01917. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.01902-17
Vignaroli C, Zandri G, Aquilanti L, Pasquaroli S, Biavasco F (2011): Multidrug-resistant enterococci in animal meat and faeces and co-transfer of resistance from an Enterococcus durans to a human Enterococcus faecium. Current Microbiology 62, 1438–1447. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00284-011-9880-x
Viola C, DeVincent SJ (2006): Overview of issues pertaining to the manufacture, distribution, and use of antimicrobials in animals and other information relevant to animal antimicrobial use data collection in the United States. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 73, 111–131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2005.09.020
Wang S, Weller D, Falardeau J, Strawn LK, Mardones FO, Adell AD, Switt AI (2016): Food safety trends: from globalization of whole genome sequencing to application of new tools to prevent foodborne diseases. Trends in Food Science & Technology 57, 188–198.
Zhang S, Iandolo JJ, Stewart GC (1998): The enterotoxin D plasmid of Staphylococcus aureus encodes a second enterotoxin determinant (sej). FEMS Microbiology Letters 168, 227–233. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6968.1998.tb13278.x