A retrospective study of canine cervical disk herniation and the beneficial effects of rehabilitation therapy after ventral slot decompression

https://doi.org/10.17221/114/2018-VETMEDCitation:Jeong I., Rahman M., Choi G., Seo B., Lee G., Kim S., Kim N. (2019): A retrospective study of canine cervical disk herniation and the beneficial effects of rehabilitation therapy after ventral slot decompression. Veterinarni Medicina, 64: 251-259.
download PDF

The objective of this study was to evaluate the clinical outcome of ventral slot decompression and rehabilitation therapy in dogs with cervical intervertebral disc herniation (IVDH). Surgical decompression was performed in dogs with IVDH using the ventral slot procedure. After surgery, physiotherapeutic rehabilitation consisted of a combination of electrotherapy, infrared therapy and mechanical massage; treadmill exercise was started when the animal could stand up. A total of 58 dogs were selected from the hospital and included in two groups: rehabilitated group (RG, n = 34) and non-rehabilitated group (NRG, n = 24). Dogs of each group were subdivided into five groups based on a pre-operative clinical grading system. Grade 1 designated spinal pain only, grade 2 designated ambulatory paraparesis, grade 3 designated non-ambulatory paraparesis, grade 4 designated paraplegia with deep-pain perception intact and grade 5 designated paraplegia without deep-pain perception. Post-operative changes of both groups were evaluated and compared, including time until unassisted standing and walking after surgery and the success rate. Overall, 79.41% (27/34) of dogs had a successful neurologic outcome in the RG group, which was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the NRG group 62.50% (15/24). Interestingly, the success rate differed when the preoperative grading system was considered. The success rates of grades 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 were 100% (9/9), 100% (7/7), 75% (3/4), 53.85% (7/13) and 100% (1/1), respectively, in the rehabilitated groups, whereas in the non-rehabilitated groups success rates were 100% (5/5), 83.33% (5/6), 60.00% (3/5), 28.57% (2/7) and 0% (0/1), respectively. The differences in success rates between the two groups according to grading were 0, 16.67, 15, 25.57 and 100%, respectively. The proposed rehabilitation therapy after surgical decompression of cervical IVDH can improve the success rate when the preoperative pathological condition is severe.

References:
Alam Monzurul, Garcia-Alias Guillermo, Shah Prithvi K., Gerasimenko Yury, Zhong Hui, Roy Roland R., Edgerton V. Reggie (2015): Evaluation of optimal electrode configurations for epidural spinal cord stimulation in cervical spinal cord injured rats. Journal of Neuroscience Methods, 247, 50-57 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneumeth.2015.03.012
 
Bennaim Michael, Porato Mathilde, Jarleton Astrid, Hamon Martin, Carroll James D., Gommeren Kris, Balligand Marc (2017): Preliminary evaluation of the effects of photobiomodulation therapy and physical rehabilitation on early postoperative recovery of dogs undergoing hemilaminectomy for treatment of thoracolumbar intervertebral disk disease. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 78, 195-206 https://doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.78.2.195
 
Böttcher Peter, Böttcher Irene Christine, Truar Katrin, Ludewig Eberhard, Oechtering Gerhard, Flegel Thomas (2013): Effect of Ventral Slot Procedure on Spinal Cord Compression in Dogs with Single Static Intervertebral Disc Disease: Preliminary Findings while Evaluating a Semiquantitative Computed Tomographic Myelographic Score of Spinal Cord Compression. Veterinary Surgery, 42, 383-391 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-950X.2012.01067.x
 
Cherrone Karen L., Dewey Curtis W., Coates Joan R., Bergman Robert L. (2004): A Retrospective Comparison of Cervical Intervertebral Disk Disease in Nonchondrodystrophic Large Dogs Versus Small Dogs. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 40, 316-320 https://doi.org/10.5326/0400316
 
Choi GabChol, Jeong InSeong, Seo BeomSeok, Lee GiJong, Kim Young, Rahman Md, Kim Sehoon (2018): Surgical correction of ureter rupture due to stenosis induced secondary to accidental injury by placing nephrovesical subcutaneous ureteric bypass in a dog. Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research, 5, 247- https://doi.org/10.5455/javar.2018.e266
 
CHOI Gab-Chol, RAHMAN Md. Mahbubur, KIM Hwangmin, KIM Sehoon, JEONG In-Seong (2018): Management of sternal dislocation with and without surgery in cats: Owner-assessed long-term follow-up of two clinical cases. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 80, 1001-1006 https://doi.org/10.1292/jvms.17-0307
 
Dhupa Sarit, Glickman Nita, Waters David J. (1999): Reoperative Neurosurgery in Dogs With Thoracolumbar Disc Disease. Veterinary Surgery, 28, 421-428 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-950X.1999.00421.x
 
Funayama Toru, Sakane Masataka, Abe Tetsuya, Ochiai Naoyuki (2012): Photodynamic Therapy with Indocyanine Green Injection and Near-Infrared Light Irradiation Has Phototoxic Effects and Delays Paralysis in Spinal Metastasis. Photomedicine and Laser Surgery, 30, 47-53 https://doi.org/10.1089/pho.2011.3080
 
Gale GD, Rothbart PJ, Li Y (2006): Infrared therapy for chronic low back pain: a randomized, controlled trial. Pain Research & Management 11, 193–196.
 
Hillman Robert B., Kengeri Seema S., Waters David J. (2009): Reevaluation of Predictive Factors for Complete Recovery in Dogs With Nonambulatory Tetraparesis Secondary to Cervical Disk Herniation. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 45, 155-163 https://doi.org/10.5326/0450155
 
Ho Chester H., Triolo Ronald J., Elias Anastasia L., Kilgore Kevin L., DiMarco Anthony F., Bogie Kath, Vette Albert H., Audu Musa L., Kobetic Rudi, Chang Sarah R., Chan K. Ming, Dukelow Sean, Bourbeau Dennis J., Brose Steven W., Gustafson Kenneth J., Kiss Zelma H.T., Mushahwar Vivian K. (2014): Functional Electrical Stimulation and Spinal Cord Injury. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 25, 631-654 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pmr.2014.05.001
 
Hodgson Michelle M., Bevan John M., Evans Richard B., Johnson Thai I. (2017): Influence of in-house rehabilitation on the postoperative outcome of dogs with intervertebral disk herniation. Veterinary Surgery, 46, 566-573 https://doi.org/10.1111/vsu.12635
 
Jeong InSeong, Rahman Md, Kim Hwangmin, Lee GiJong, Seo BeomSeok, Choi GabChol, Kim Sehoon, Kim Namsoo (2018): Prognostic value with intervertebral herniation disk disease in dogs. Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research, 5, 240- https://doi.org/10.5455/javar.2018.e261
 
Jung Sun-Young, Seo Tae-Beom, Kim Dae-Young (2016): Treadmill exercise facilitates recovery of locomotor function through axonal regeneration following spinal cord injury in rats. Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation, 12, 284-292 https://doi.org/10.12965/jer.1632698.349
 
Koehler Carl L., Stover Susan M., LeCouteur Richard A., Schulz Kurt S., Hawkins David A. (2005): Effect of a ventral slot procedure and of smooth or positive-profile threaded pins with polymethylmethacrylate fixation on intervertebral biomechanics at treated and adjacent canine cervical vertebral motion units. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 66, 678-687 https://doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.2005.66.678
 
Lemarie RJ, Kerwin SC, Partington BP, Hosgood G (2000): Vertebral subluxation following ventral cervical decompression in the dog. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 36, 348-358 https://doi.org/10.5326/15473317-36-4-348
 
Levine Jonathan M., Levine Gwendolyn J., Kerwin Sharon C., Hettlich Bianca F., Fosgate Geoffrey T. (2006): Association between various physical factors and acute thoracolumbar intervertebral disk extrusion or protrusion in Dachshunds. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 229, 370-375 https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.229.3.370
 
Lim Changyun, Kweon Oh-Kyeong, Choi Min-Cheol, Choi Jihye, Yoon Junghee (2010): Computed tomographic characteristics of acute thoracolumbar intervertebral disc disease in dogs. Journal of Veterinary Science, 11, 73- https://doi.org/10.4142/jvs.2010.11.1.73
 
Moskvin Sergey Vladimirovich (2017): Low-Level Laser Therapy in Russia: History, Science and Practice. Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences, 8, 56-65 https://doi.org/10.15171/jlms.2017.11
 
Rahman Md. Mahbubur, Jeong In-Seong, Kim Nam Soo (2017): Application of Minimally Invasive Plate Osteosynthesis to Tibial Shaft Fractures in Dogs. Journal of Veterinary Clinics, 34, 200-203 https://doi.org/10.17555/jvc.2017.06.34.3.200
 
Richardson C. D., Maciver K., Wright M., Wiles J. R. (2013): Patient reports of the effects and side-effects of TENS for chronic non-malignant pain following a four week trial. The Pain Clinic, 13, 265-276 https://doi.org/10.1163/156856901753702447
 
Rossetti Diego, Ragetly Guillaume R., Poncet Cyrill M. (2016): High-Definition Video Telescope-Assisted Ventral Slot Decompression Surgery for Cervical Intervertebral Disc Herniation in 30 Dogs. Veterinary Surgery, 45, 893-900 https://doi.org/10.1111/vsu.12528
 
Rossmeisl John H., Lanz Otto I., Inzana Karen D., Bergman Robert L. (2005): A Modified Lateral Approach to the Canine Cervical Spine: Procedural Description and Clinical Application in 16 Dogs with Lateralized Compressive Myelopathy or Radiculopathy. Veterinary Surgery, 34, 436-444 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-950X.2005.00066.x
 
Rossmeisl JH Jr, White C, Pancotto TE, Bays A, Henao-Guerrero PN (2013): Acute adverse events associated with ventral slot decompression in 546 dogs with cervical intervertebral disc disease. Veterinary Surgery 42, 795–806.
 
Seo SeokBeom, Rahman Md, Jeong In (2017): Importance of meniscal injury diagnosis and surgical management in dogs during reconstruction of cranial cruciate ligament rupture: A retrospective study. Journal of Advanced Veterinary and Animal Research, 4, 311- https://doi.org/10.5455/javar.2017.d223
 
SHAMIR MERAV H., CHAI ORIT, LOEB EMMANUEL (2008): A Method for Intervertebral Space Distraction Before Stabilization Combined with Complete Ventral Slot for Treatment of Disc-Associated Wobbler Syndrome in Dogs. Veterinary Surgery, 37, 186-192 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-950X.2007.00360.x
 
Schmied Oliver, Golini Lorenzo, Steffen Frank (2011): Effectiveness of Cervical Hemilaminectomy in Canine Hansen Type I and Type II Disc Disease: A Retrospective Study. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 47, 342-350 https://doi.org/10.5326/JAAHA-MS-5604
 
Smolders Lucas A., Bergknut Niklas, Grinwis Guy C.M., Hagman Ragnvi, Lagerstedt Anne-Sofie, Hazewinkel Herman A.W., Tryfonidou Marianna A., Meij Björn P. (2013): Intervertebral disc degeneration in the dog. Part 2: Chondrodystrophic and non-chondrodystrophic breeds. The Veterinary Journal, 195, 292-299 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2012.10.011
 
Zidan Natalia, Sims Cory, Fenn Joe, Williams Kim, Griffith Emily, Early Peter J., Mariani Chris L., Munana Karen R., Guevar Julien, Olby Natasha J. (2018): A randomized, blinded, prospective clinical trial of postoperative rehabilitation in dogs after surgical decompression of acute thoracolumbar intervertebral disc herniation. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 32, 1133-1144 https://doi.org/10.1111/jvim.15086
 
download PDF

© 2019 Czech Academy of Agricultural Sciences